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Therefore, it is becoming very essential to integrate IoT and AI technologies to increase the synergy between them. However, there are several limitations to achieve AI enabled IoT as the availability of IoT devices is not always high, and IoT networks cannot guarantee a certain level of performance in real-time applications due to resource constraints. With AI enabled IoT, the IoT service environment can be intelligently managed in order to compensate for the unexpected performance degradation often caused by abnormal situations.

In this document, we consider the content caching design without requiring historical content access information or content popularity profiles in a hierarchical cellular network architecture. Our design aims to dynamically select caching locations for different contents where caching locations can be content servers, cloud units CUs , and base stations BSs. Our design objective is to support as high content request rates as possible while maintaining the finite service time.

This document describes few 5G mobility scenarios and how mobile network functions map its SST criteria to identifiers in IP packets that transport segments use to grant transport layer services. This document explores the nuances around the terminology and usage of various IS-IS address families, topologies with different considerations, for choosing the right combination for a specific deployment scenario.

PPR uses a simple encapsulation to add the path identity to the packet. PPR can also be used to mitigate the MTU and data plane processing issues that may result from Segment Routing SR packet overhead; and also supports further extensions along the paths.

This document proposes extension of probabilistic routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity PRoPHET for information centric network. G-SRv6 is fully compatible with SRv6 with no modification of SRH, no new address consumption, no new route creation, and even no modification of control plane. Therefore, it is necessary to consider other types of segments or sub-paths in the end-to-end SRv6 network programming. This document also defines the mechanisms of Generalized SRv6 Networking Programming and the requirements of related protocol extensions of control plane and data plane.

This document proposes a YANG module that provides per-node capabilities for optimum operational data collection. This module defines augmented nodes to publish the metadata information specific to YANG node-identifier as per ietf-system- capabilities datatree. Complementary RPCs, based on the same node capabilities, simplify the data collection operations. This architecture aims at assuring that service instances are correctly running.

As services rely on multiple sub-services by the underlying network devices, getting the assurance of a healthy service is only possible with a holistic view of network devices. This architecture not only helps to correlate the service degradation with the network root cause but also the impacted services when a network component fails or degrades. This document specifies a framework and mapping from slices in 5G mobile systems to transport slices in IP and Layer 2 transport networks.

Slices in 5G systems are characterized by latency bounds, reservation guarantees, jitter, data rates, availability, mobility speed, usage density, criticality and priority. These characteristics should be mapped to the transport network slice characteristics that include bandwidth, latency and criteria such as isolation, directionality and disjoint routes.

Mobile slice criteria need to be mapped to the appropriate transport slice and capabilities offered in backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul connectivity segments between radio side network functions and user plane function gateway. This document describes how mobile network functions map its slice criteria to identifiers in IP packets that transport network segments use to grant transport layer services during UE mobility scenarios. Applicability of this framework and underlying transport networks, which can enable different slice properties is also discussed.

This document describes a methodology to monitor network performance exploiting user devices. This can be achieved using the Explicit Flow Measurement Techniques, protocol independent methods that employ few marking bits, inside the header of each packet, for loss and delay measurement. User devices and servers, marking the traffic, signal these metrics to intermediate network observers allowing them to measure connection performance, and to locate the network segment where impairments happen.

In addition or in alternative to network observers, a probe can be installed on the user device with remarkable benefits in terms of hardware deployment and measurement scalability. Service providers are starting to deploy and interconnect computing capabilities across the network for hosting network functions and applications.

In distributed computing environments, both computing and topological information are necessary in order to determine the more convenient infrastructure where to deploy such a service or application. This document raises an initial approach towards the use of ALTO to provide such information and assist in the selection of proper execution environments. New 5G services are starting to be deployed in operational networks, leveraging in a number of novel technologies and architectural concepts.

The purpose of this document is to overview the implications of 5G services in transport networks and to provide guidance on bechmarking of the infratructures supporting those services. Slicing at the transport network is expected to be offered as part of end-to-end network slices, fostered by the introduction of new services such as 5G.

This document explores the usage of intent technologies for requesting IETF network slices. The transport network is an essential component in the end-to-end delivery of services and, consequently, with the advent of network slicing it is necessary to understand what could be the way in which the transport network is consumed as a slice. This document analyses the needs of potential IETF network slice customers i.

This document defines a base profile for TLS protocol versions 1. It is also appropriate for all other US Government systems that process high-value information. The profile is made publicly available here for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments.

It is made publicly available for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments. This specification defines models and schema definitions facilitating the storage of [X. Internet mail defines the From: field to indicate the author of the message's content and the Sender: field to indicate who initially handled the message, on the author's behalf.

The Sender: field is optional, if it has the same information as the From: field. That is, when the Sender: field is absent, the From: field has conflated semantics, as both a handling identifier and a content creator identifier. This was not a problem, until development of stringent protections on use of the From: field.

It has prompted Mediators, such as mailing lists, to modify the From: field, to circumvent mail rejection caused by those protections. This affects end-to-end behavior of email, between the author and the final recipients, because mail from the same author is not treated the same, depending on what path it followed. In effect, the From: field has become dominated by its role as a handling identifier. The current specification augments the altered use of the From: field, by specifying the Author: field, which identifies the original author of the message and is not subject to modification by Mediators.

The address to which email is delivered might be different than any of the addresses shown in any of the content header fields that were created by the author. Before final delivery, handling can entail a sequence of addresses that lead to the recipient. It can be helpful for a message to have a common way to record each delivery in such a sequence, and to include each address used for that recipient. This specification defines a header field for this information.

The popularity of social media has led to user comfort with easily signaling basic reactions to an author's posting, such as with a 'thumbs up' or 'smiley' graphic. This specification permits a similar facility for Internet Mail. It has the traffic engineering information on the network topology and can compute optimal paths for a given traffic flow across the network.

This document describes some reference architectures for BGP as a central controller. A BGP-based central controller can simplify the operations on the network and use network resources efficiently for providing services with high quality. This document discusses the architecture and application scenarios of fused service function chain. Fused service function chain means that two or more service function chains are fused to become a single service function chain from the view of data plane and control plane.

Anyhow, some mechanism or methods need to be used when two or more service function chains are fused to be a single service function chain. This memo defines a metric for one path congestion across Internet paths. The traditional mode evaluates network congestion based on the bandwidth utilization of the link. However, there is a lack of E2E path congestion that is truly service oriented.

So A Path Congestion Metric is required. This test method can test multi-paths concurrently from one edge node to another edge node. As part of that discussion, it became obvious that people had a variety of ideas about how multiple paths would be used, because they weren't looking at the same use cases, and so had different assumptions about how applications might use QUIC over multiple paths.

This document is intended to capture questions that have come up in discussions, with some suggested answers, to inform further discussion in the working group. As part of that discussion, it became obvious that people had a variety of ideas about how multiple paths would be used, because they weren't looking at the same use cases. This document is intended to capture that variety of ideas, to inform further discussion in the working group.

Service functions are deployed as, physical or virtualized elements along with network nodes or on servers in data centers. Segment Routing SR brings in the concept of segments which can be topological or service instructions. Service segments are SR segments that are associated with service functions. SR Policies are used for the setup of paths for steering of traffic through service functions using their service segments.

This document specifies the extensions to BGP-LS for the advertisement of service functions along their associated service segments. The BGP-LS advertisement of service function information along with the network nodes that they are attached to, or associated with, enables controllers compute and setup service paths in the network. This draft describes considerations for benchmarking network performance in containerized infrastructures.

In the containerized infrastructure, Virtualized Network Functions VNFs are deployed on operating-system-level virtualization platform by abstracting the user namespace as opposed to virtualization using a hypervisor. Leveraging this, the system configurations and networking scenarios for benchmarking will be partially changed by the way in which the resource allocation and network technologies specified for containerized VNFs.

In this draft, we compare the state of the art in a container networking architecture with networking on VM-based virtualized systems, and provide several test scenarios for benchmarking network performance in containerized infrastructures. This document specifies extensions to the QUIC protocol to enable the simultaneous usage of multiple paths for a single connection. This document proposes a mechanism to adjust IS-IS flooding speed between two adjacent routers by adjusting the sender flooding speed to the capability of the receiver.

This helps improving the flooding throughput, reducing LSPs losses and retransmissions due to receiver overload, and avoiding manual tuning of flooding parameters by the network operator. This document defines a solution to encode a slice identifier in MPLS in order to distinguish packets that belong to different slices, to allow enforcing per network slice policies.

The slice identification is independent of the topology. In order to minimize the size of the MPLS stack and to ease incremental deployment the slice identifier is encoded as part of the Entropy Label. This document also extends the use of the TTL field of the Entropy Label in order to provide a flexible set of flags called the Entropy Label Control field.

This reduces the overhead for both the traffic volume and the network processor. This draft describes a protocol by which client-side applications, running inside a web browser, can communicate with a data storage server that is hosted on a different domain name. This way, the provider of a web application need not also play the role of data storage provider. The protocol supports storing, retrieving, and removing individual documents, as well as listing the contents of an individual folder, and access control is based on bearer tokens.

This document gives general rules for how to pronounce Mandarin Chinese names in conversation, and how to determine which name is someone's surname. It also covers some other related topics about Chinese names. The intent is to allow IETF participants who are not familiar with Chinese to communicate better with Chinese participants.

This document describes Tetrys, an On-The-Fly Network Coding NC protocol that can be used to transport delay and loss-sensitive data over a lossy network. Tetrys can recover from erasures within an RTT-independent delay, thanks to the transmission of coded packets. It can be used for both unicast, multicast and anycast communications. Multipath communication enables the combination of low data rate, low latency terrestrial links and high data rate, high latency links e. However, the combination of such heterogeneous links is challenging from a technical point of view.

This document describes a possible solution, i. The applicability of this approach to encrypted transport protocols e. BARE messages are concise and have a well-defined schema, and implementations may be simple and broadly compatible.

A schema language is also provided to express message schemas out-of-band. It can compute optimal paths for traffic across a network and can also update the paths to reflect changes in the network or traffic demands. PCEP has been proposed as a control protocol for use in these environments to allow the PCE to be fully enabled as a central controller.

This document specifies the procedures and PCEP protocol extensions when a PCE-based controller is also responsible for configuring the forwarding actions on the routers for Segment Routing SR in IPv6 SRv6 , in addition to computing the SRv6 paths for packet flows and telling the edge routers what instructions to attach to packets as they enter the network. This document introduces this relaxation and updates RFC Traditionally, this TED has been obtained from a link state LS routing protocol supporting the traffic engineering extensions.

Lzip can achieve higher compression ratios than gzip. This document describes the lzip format and registers a media type and content encoding to be used when transporting lzip-compressed content via Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions MIME. End-to-end cryptographic protections for e-mail messages can provide useful security. However, the standards for providing cryptographic protection are extremely flexible. That flexibility can trap users and cause surprising failures.

This document offers guidance for mail user agent implementers that need to compose or interpret e-mail messages with end-to-end cryptographic protection. It provides a useful set of vocabulary as well as suggestions to avoid common failures.

This document describes the Network File System NFS version 4 minor version 1, including features retained from the base protocol NFS version 4 minor version 0, which is specified in RFC and protocol extensions made subsequently. The later minor version has no dependencies on NFS version 4 minor version 0, and is considered a separate protocol.

This document obsoletes RFC In addition to many corrections and clarifications, it relies on NFSv4-wide documents to substantially revise the treatment of protocol extension, internationalization, and security, superseding the descriptions of those aspects of the protocol appearing in RFCs and It substantially revises the treatment of features relating to multi-server namespace, superseding the description of those features appearing in RFC This is intended to provide a helpful point of comparision for drafts leading to an eventual rfcbis to enable use of rfcdiff when reviewing such drafts.

This document discusses the inadequate approach to security within the family of NFSv4 protocol specifications and proposes steps to correct the situation. Because the security architecture is similar for all NFSv4 minor versions, we recommend a single new standards- track document to encapsulate NFSv4 security fundamentals, and propose the introduction of several additional security-related documents. A Virtual Transport Network VTN is a virtual network which has a customized network topology and a set of dedicated or shared network resources allocated from the network infrastructure.

In packet forwarding, some fields in data packet needs to be used to identify the VTN the packet belongs to, so that the VTN-specific processing can be performed. The procedure for processing of the VTN option is also specified. BGP has been used to distribute different types of routing and policy information. In some cases, the information distributed may be only intended for one or a particular group of BGP nodes in the network.

Currently BGP does not have a generic mechanism of designating the target nodes of the routing information. Segment Routing SR Policy is a set of candidate paths, each consisting of one or more segment lists and the associated information. The header of a packet steered in an SR Policy is augmented with an ordered list of segments associated with that SR Policy. In scenarios where multiple Virtual Transport Networks VTNs exist in the network, the VTN in which the SR policy is instantiated may also need to be specified, so that the header of packet can also be augmented with the information associated with the VTN.

Segment Routing SR leverages the source routing paradigm. A node steers a packet through an ordered list of instructions, called "segments". A segment can represent topological or service based instructions. A segment can further be associated with a set of network resources used for executing the instruction.

Such a segment is called resource-aware segment. This document defines a new SRv6 network function which can be used for SRv6 inter-layer network programming. It is a variant of the End. X function. Instead of pointing to an L3 adjacency, this function points to an underlay interface. Future networks that support advanced services, such as those enabled by 5G mobile networks, envision a set of overlay networks each with different performance and scaling properties.

These overlays are known as network slices and are realized over a common underlay network. This document sets out such a mechanism for use in Segment Routing networks. This draft defines an IPv4 option containing a flowlabel that is compatible to IPv6. It is required for simplified usage of IntServ and interoperability with IPv6.

This document describes the applicability of the Reliable Server Pooling architecture to manage real-time distributed computing pools and access the resources of such pools. This document contains the definition of a delay measurement infrastructure and a delay-sensitive Least-Used policy for Reliable Server Pooling. This document collects some idea for a next generation of the Reliable Server Pooling framework. This facilitates porting existing applications to use a subset of NEAT's functionality.

It is a result of lessons learned from more than one decade of SCTP deployment. This document explores the scope, use-cases and requirements for a BGP based routing solution to establish end-to-end intent-aware paths across a multi-domain service provider network environment.

This document introduces a new usecase of Application-aware IPv6 Networking to enable data-driven accounting. This document introduces a method to decrease the micro-bursts in Layer3 network for low-latency traffic. There will be a relatively small number of published version numbers for the foreseeable future. This document provides a method for clients and servers to negotiate the use of other version numbers in subsequent connections and encrypts Initial Packets using secret keys instead of standard ones.

If a sizeable subset of QUIC connections use this mechanism, this should prevent middlebox ossification around the current set of published version numbers and the contents of QUIC Initial packets, as well as improving the protocol's privacy properties. The IETF firmly believes in the value of in-person meetings to reach consensus on documents. However, various emergencies can make a planned in-person meeting impossible. This document provides criteria for making this judgment. This is the specification for an experimental show of hands tool for the Meetecho system to be used in online meetings to help chairs quickly poll the meeting.

This tool is different from the previous experimental virtual hum tool as it addresses a different use case with different functionality. The JSON format includes the overall structure along with the semantic associated for each respective key. This draft describes an IPv6 solution that enables packets from an application on a UE User Equipment sticking to the same application server location when the UE moves from one 5G cell site to another. The goal is to improve latency and performance for 5G Edge Computing services.

The extension enables a feature, called soft anchoring, which makes one Edge Computing Server at one specific location to be more preferred than others for the same application to receive packets from a specific source UE. Those measurements are for IP network to dynamically optimize the forwarding of 5G edge computing service without any knowledge above IP layer. CR-preload] and the "" status code [RFC]. In order to improve performance and reduce bandwidth usage, the server can omit the fields not requested.

This document describes a stateless NAT64 extension which allows for creation of reliable tunnels between islands of IPv6 deployment. A principal feature of EVPN is the ability to support multihoming from a customer equipment CE to multiple provider edge equipment PE active with all-active links. This draft specifies an improvement to load balancing such links. A principal feature of EVPN is the ability to support multihoming from a customer equipment CE to multiple provider edge equipment PE with all-active links.

These URIs identify algorithms and types of information. This document corrects three errata against and obsoletes RFC The intent is to keep this draft alive while it accumulates updates until it seems reasonable to publish the next version. IETF Hackathons encourage developers to collaborate and develop utilities, ideas, sample code and solutions that show practical implementations of IETF standards. Watching videos Contents from mobile devices has been causing most of the network traffic and is projected to remain to increase exponentially.

Thus, numerous types of content and chunk based caching schemes have been proposed to handle the increasing traffic. Those caching schemes cache the whole videos at the edge nodes, but most of the users view only the beginning of the videos.

Hence, caching the complete video on the edge node is an ineffective solution to reduce the network traffic as well as to improve the cache utilization. Thus, a chunk-level caching scheme to store popular videos partially and a smart prefetching scheme is needed to provide the missing chunks of the video. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 09, It differs from the current TCP standards only in the congestion control algorithm on the sender side.

In particular, it uses a cubic function instead of a linear window increase function of the current TCP standards to improve scalability and stability under fast and long-distance networks. CUBIC and its predecessor algorithm have been adopted as defaults by Linux and have been used for many years. This document specifies several usecases related to the different ways IoT devices are exploited by malicious adversaries to instantiate Distributed Denial of Services DDoS attacks.

The attacks are generted from IoT devices that have no proper protection against generating unsolicited communication messages targeting a certain network and creating large amounts of network traffic. The attackers take advantage of breaches in the configuration data in unprotected IoT devices exploited for DDoS attacks.

The attackers take advantage of the IoT devices that can send network packets that were generated by malicious code that interacts with an OS implementation that runs on the IoT devices. The major enabler of such attacks is related to IoT devices that have no OS or unprotected EE OS and run code that is downloaded to them from the TA and modified by man-in-the-middle that inserts malicious code in the OS.

The new data reduction attributes are proposed to allow the client application to communicate to the NFSv4 server data reduction attributes associated with files and directories using new metadata, communicated to the Block Storage data reduction engines.

Such data reduction metadata is used as hints to the file server about what type of data reduction to apply. The proposed data reduction attributes include achievable ratios for compression and deduplication plus whether each data reduction technique applies to a file or directory. Acknowledgement packets ACKs are used by transport protocols to confirm the delivery of packets, and their reception is used in a variety of other ways to measure path round trip time, to gauge path congestion, etc.

However, the transmission of ACKs also consumes resources at the receiver, forwarding resource in the network and processing resources at the sender. On network paths with significant path asymmetry, transmission of ACKs can limit the available throughput or can reduce the efficient use of network capacity.

In these cases, reducing the ratio of ACK packets to data packets can improve link utilisation and reduce link transmission costs. It can also reduce processing overhead at the sender and receiver. This document proposes a change to the default acknowledgement policy of the QUIC transport protocol to improve performance over paths with appreciable asymmetry.

It provides guidance on the design of methods to avoid congestion collapse and to provide congestion control. Recommendations and requirements on this topic are distributed across many documents in the RFC series. This therefore seeks to gather and consolidate these recommendations in an annexe. Based on these specifications, and Internet engineering experience, the document provides input to the design of new congestion control methods in protocols.

The present document is for discussion and comment by the IETF. It allows a datagram application that uses this PL, to discover the largest size of datagram that can be sent across a network path. This document describes the changes between Unicode 6. Some additions and changes have been made in the Unicode Standard that affect the values produced by the algorithm IDNA specifies. Although IDNA allows adding exceptions to the algorithm for backward compatibility; however, this document does not add any such exceptions.

This document provides the necessary tables to IANA to make its database consisstent with Unicode To improve understanding, this document describes systems that are being used as alternatives to those that conform to IDNA This draft describes how the LISP mapping system designed to be distributed for scale can also be decentralized for management and trust. During the early weeks and months of the COVID pandemic, significant changes to Internet usage occurred as a result of a sudden global shift to people working, studying and quarantining at home.

One aspect that this affected was interconnection between networks, which this paper studies. This paper explores some of the effects of these changes on Internet interconnection points, in terms of utilization, traffic ratios, and other performance characteristics such as latency. These are described in this document. The objective is to document the problem space and make suggestions that could help inform network operators on how to take account of DoH deployment.

This document also identifies topics that may require further analysis. This document reminds the existence of the "Segment Routing SR MPLS data-plane with IPv6 control-plane" solution that is mature from a standardization, productization and commercial deployment viewpoint.

Segment Routing SR allows a headend node to steer a packet flow along any path. SR Policy framework enables the instantiation and the management of necessary state on the headend node for flows along a source routed paths using an ordered list of segments associated with their specific SR Policies. This document describes some of the implementation and deployment aspects that are useful for operationalizing the SR Policy architecture.

This solution leverages the SRv6 Network Programming model. With the growing interconnection of devices, cyber-security and data protection are of increasing importance. This is especially the case regarding cyber-physical systems due to their close entanglement with the physical world.

Misbehavior and information leakage can lead to financial and physical damage and endanger human lives and well- being. Thus, hard security and privacy requirements are necessary to be met. Furthermore, a thorough investigation of incidents is essential for ultimate protection. In-network computing allows the processing of traffic and data directly in the network and at line- rate. Thus, the in-network computing paradigm presents a promising solution for efficiently providing security and privacy mechanisms as well as event analysis.

This document discusses select mechanisms to demonstrate how in-network computing concepts can be applied to counter existing shortcomings of cyber-security and data privacy. This document describes the fundamental and unique style conventions and editorial policies currently in use for the RFC Series.

Additional guidance is captured on a website that reflects the experimental nature of that guidance and prepares it for future inclusion in the RFC Style Guide. Hese include hash functions that result in signatures with significantly smaller than the signatures using the current parameter sets, and should have sufficient security.

This Internet-Draft describes a hierarchical addressing scheme for IPv6, intentionally very much simplified to allow for very fast source routing experimentation using simple forwarding nodes. Research groups evaluate achievable latency reduction for special applications such as radio access networks, industrial networks or other networks requiring very low latency. When security vulnerabilities are discovered by researchers, proper reporting channels are often lacking.

As a result, vulnerabilities may be left unreported. This document defines a format "security. This document outlines how ACME can be used by a client to obtain a certificate for a subdomain identifier from a certification authority. The client has fulfilled a challenge against a parent domain but does not need to fulfil a challenge against the explicit subdomain as certificate policy allows issuance of the subdomain certificate without explicit subdomain ownership proof.

With the development of edge computing, there is a trend that computing is widely deployed in network rather than at other end of network, and provides services at nearer location. With the deep integration of network, traditional optimization and scheduling within network domain is not enough, the endpoint of the path matters a lot. So the relationship between computing and network are new and important topics to be studied. This document focus on the requirements of computing and network joint optimization and scheduling based on the newly arising service requirements.

This document defines delegation information signer DiS resource record for protecting the delegation information, by inserting on the parent side of zone cut to hold a hash of delegation information. This document also describes the usage of DiS resource record and shows the implications on security-aware resolvers. This document describes how the Alternate Marking Method can be used as the passive performance measurement tool in an SRv6 network.

This document discusses additional data fields and associated data types to be added to the IOAM data fileds described in [I-D. The information model is defined in draft-ietf- ccamp-wson-iv-info and draft-martinelli-ccamp-wson-iv-encode. The use of this model does not guarantee interworking of transceivers over a DWDM.

Optical path feasibility and interoperability has to be determined by means outside the scope of this document. The purpose of this model is to program interface parameters to consistently configure the mode of operation of transceivers. In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance IOAM records operational and telemetry information in the data packet while the packet traverses a path between two nodes in the network.

This document specifies procedure for sending and processing probe query and response messages for Performance Measurement PM in Segment Routing networks. FSP is a connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides mobility and multihoming support by introducing the concept of 'upper layer thread ID', which is associated with some shared secret that is applied with some secure hash or authenticated encryption algorithm to protect authenticity of the origin of the FSP packets.

It is able to provide following services to the upper layer application: o Stream-oriented send-receive with native message boundary o Ubiquitous authenticated encryption o 0-RTT multiplication of connections o On-the-wire compression. RSVP takes a "soft state" approach to managing the reservation state in routers and hosts. The use of Refresh messages to cover many possible failures has resulted in a number of operational problems. This document describes a number of mechanisms that can be used to reduce processing overhead requirements of refresh messages.

These extension present no backwards compatibility issues. MPLS traceroute implementations validate dataplane connectivity and isolate faults by sending messages along every end-to-end Label Switched Path LSP combination between a source and a destination node. This requires a growing number of path validations in networks with a high number of equal cost paths between origin and destination. It provides the ability to replicate a packet from one router to other routers in a different domain as well as routers in the same domain.

This document introduces the techniques for multicast deployment across multiple domains using BIERv6, and demonstrate how BIERv6 is beneficial for such deployment. Service providers are exploring the edge computing to achieve better response time, control over data and carbon energy saving by moving the computing services towards the edge of the network in scenarios of 5G MEC Multi-access Edge Computing , virtualized central office, and others.

Providing services by sharing computing resources from multiple edges is emerging and becoming more and more useful for computationally intensive tasks. The service nodes attached to multiple edges normally have two key features, service equivalency and service dynamism.

Ideally they should serve the service in a computational balanced way. However lots of approaches dispatch the service in a static way, e. This draft provides an overview of scenarios and problems associated. Networking taking account of computing resource metrics as one of its top parameters is called Compute First Networking CFN in this document.

The document identifies several key areas which require more investigations in architecture and protocol to achieve the balanced computing and networking resource utilization among edges in CFN. To empower the Segment Routing with the capability of redundancy protection, two types of Segment including Redundancy Segment and Merging Segment are introduced.

This document describes the format used by the libpcap library to record captured packets to a file. Programs using the libpcap library to read and write those files, and thus reading and writing files in that format, include tcpdump. Link State PDU flooding rates in use are much slower than what modern networks can support. The use of IS-IS at larger scale requires faster flooding rates to achieve desired convergence goals.

This document discusses issues associated with increasing flooding rates and some recommended practices which allow faster flooding rates to be used safely. One of the SCHC components is a header compression mechanism.

However, Delayed ACKs may also contribute to suboptimal performance. When a relatively large congestion window cwnd can be used, less frequent ACKs may be desirable. On the other hand, in relatively small cwnd scenarios, eliciting an immediate ACK may avoid unnecessary delays that may be incurred by the Delayed ACKs mechanism.

This option allows a sender to indicate the ACK rate to be used by a receiver, and it also allows to request immediate ACKs from a receiver. While the success of our documents is variable, many of them are widely used over a long time period. As norms in the outside world change, our documents need to remain relevant and accessible to future generations of those working on the internet, everywhere in the world.

This longevity of our documents, and the impossibility of predicting the future, implies that we should be conservative in the language that we send. Effective language expresses our intent with clarity, and without distraction. This document describes a glossary for increasing awareness of terms which are going to be clear and effective without turning readers away, to enable our mission of making the Internet work better.

This binary data is called a "Blob". This extension adds additional ways to handle Blobs, by making inline method calls within a standard JMAP request. However, the semantics of ULAs clearly contradict the definition of "global scope". This document discusses the why the terminology employed for the specification of ULAs is problematic, along with some practical consequences of the current specification of ULAs.

To prevent such flaws in future protocols and implementations, this document updates RFC , requiring future RFCs to contain analysis of the security and privacy properties of any transient numeric identifiers specified by the protocol. IPv6 addresses can differ in a number of properties, such as scope, stability, and intended usage type. This document analyzes the impact of these properties on aspects such as security, privacy, interoperability, and network operations.

Additionally, it identifies challenges and gaps that currently prevent systems and applications from leveraging the increased flexibility and availability of IPv6 addresses. This document describes the use cases, requirements, and considerations that should be factored in the design of a successor protocol to supercede version 4 of the NTP protocol [RFC] presently referred to as NTP version 5 "NTPv5".

This document is non-exhaustive and does not in its current version represent working group consensus. According to RFC [RFC], Route leaks refer to the case that the delivery range of route advertisements is beyond the expected range. However, the real-time route leak detection if any occurs is important as well, and serves as the basis for leak mitigation.

To evolve towards automated network OAM Operations, administration and management , the monitoring of control plane protocols is a fundamental necessity. This document proposes network monitoring for IGP to facilitate troubleshooting by collecting the IGP monitoring data and reporting it to the network monitoring server in real-time. In this document, the operations of network monitoring for ISIS are described, and the corresponding network monitoring message types and message formats are defined.

CCNx utilizes delta time for a number of functions. In order to do so, either accuracy or dynamic range has to be sacrificed. Since the current uses of delta time do not require both simultaneously, one can consider a logarithmic encoding such as that specified in [IEEE. The MessageVortex referred to as Vortex protocol achieves different degrees of anonymity, including sender, receiver, and third-party anonymity, by specifying messages embedded within existing transfer protocols, such as SMTP or XMPP, sent via peer nodes to one or more recipients.

The protocol outperforms others by decoupling the transport from the final transmitter and receiver. No trust is placed into any infrastructure except for that of the sending and receiving parties of the message. The creator of the routing block Routing block builder;RBB has full control over the message flow.

Routing nodes gain no non-obvious knowledge about the messages even when collaborating. While third-party anonymity is always achieved, the protocol also allows for either sender or receiver anonymity. The protocol was tailored for constrained devices and smooth migration for compatibility with legacy user credential databases.

It is designed to be compatible with any group of both prime- and non-prime order and comes with a security proof providing composability guarantees. This document describes how to establish a secure end-to-end channel between two parties within a federation, where both client and server are mutually authenticated. The trust relationship is based upon a trust anchor held and published by the federation. A federation is a trusted third party that inter-connect different trust domains with a common set of policies and standards.

JSON-D Data supports additional binary data types for integer and floating-point representations for use in scientific applications where conversion between binary and decimal representations would cause a loss of precision. The Mathematical Mesh is a Threshold Key Infrastructure that makes computers easier to use by making them more secure. Application of threshold cryptography to key generation and use enables users to make use of public key cryptography across multiple devices with minimal impact on the user experience.

This document provides an overview of the Mesh data structures, protocols and examples of its use. The Mathematical Mesh 'The Mesh' is an infrastructure that facilitates the exchange of configuration and credential data between multiple user devices and provides end-to-end security. This document describes the cryptographic algorithm suites used in the Mesh and the implementation of Multi-Party Encryption and Multi-Party Key Generation used in the Mesh.

The DARE Envelope syntax is used to digitally sign, digest, authenticate, or encrypt arbitrary content data. DARE Containers may support cryptographic integrity verification of the entire data container content by means of a Merkle tree. A naming service for the Mathematical Mesh is described. The Mathematical Mesh 'The Mesh' is an end-to-end secure infrastructure that facilitates the exchange of configuration and credential data between multiple user devices.

The core protocols of the Mesh are described with examples of common use cases and reference data. Mathematical Mesh 3. This document describes. This paper extends Shannon's concept of a 'work factor' as applied to evaluation of cryptographic algorithms to provide an objective measure of the practical security offered by a protocol or infrastructure design.

Considering the hypothetical work factor based on an informed estimate of the probable capabilities of an attacker with unknown resources provides a better indication of the relative strength of protocol designs than the computational work factor of the best-known attack. The social work factor is a measure of the trustworthiness of a credential issued in a PKI based on the cost of having obtained the credential through fraud at a certain point in time.

Use of the social work factor allows evaluation of Certificate Authority based trust models and peer to peer Web of Trust models to be evaluated in the same framework. The analysis demonstrates that both approaches have limitations and that in certain applications, a blended model is superior to either by itself. The final section of the paper describes a proposal to realize this blended model using the Mathematical Mesh. This document describes the naming and addressing schemes used in the Mathematical Mesh.

A UDF consists of a binary sequence, the initial eight bits of which specify a type identifier code. Type identifier codes have been selected so as to provide a useful mnemonic indicating their purpose when presented in Base32 encoding. Two categories of UDF are described. Data UDFs provide a compact presentation of a fixed length binary data value in a format that is convenient for data entry.

A Data UDF may represent a cryptographic key, a nonce value or a share of a secret. SINs allow a direct trust model to be applied to achieve end-to-end security in existing Internet applications without the need for trusted third parties. EARLs may be presented on paper correspondence as a QR code to securely provide a machine- readable version of the same content. This may be applied to automate processes such as invoicing or to provide accessibility services for the partially sighted.

Threshold cryptography operation modes are described with application to the Ed, Ed, X and X Elliptic Curves. Threshold key generation allows generation of keypairs to be divided between two or more parties with verifiable security guaranties. Threshold decryption allows elliptic curve key agreement to be divided between two or more parties such that all the parties must co-operate to complete a private key agreement operation.

The same primitives may be applied to improve resistance to side channel attacks. A Threshold signature scheme is described in a separate document. A Threshold signature scheme is described. The signatures created are computationally indistinguishable from those produced using the Ed and Ed curves as specified in RFC except in that they are non-deterministic.

Threshold signatures are a form of digital signature whose creation requires two or more parties to interact but does not disclose the number or identities of the parties involved. This document has been developed to explain the proposal and to solicit community discussion and feedback on this proposal. Information Services are services whereby information is provided in response to user requests, and may include involvement of a human or automated agent. Moving ahead, Information Services providers envision exciting multimedia services that support simultaneous voice and data interactions with full operator backup at any time during the call.

Information Services providers are planning to migrate to SIP based platforms, which will enable such advanced services, while continuing to support traditional DA services. Operator Services are traditional PSTN services which often involve providing human or automated assistance to a caller, and often require the specialized capabilities traditionally provided by an operator services switch.

This document aims to identify how Operator and Information Services can be implemented using existing or currently proposed SIP mechanisms, to identity existing protocol gaps, and to provide a set of Best Current Practices to facilitate interoperability.

For Operator Services, the intention is to describe how current operator services can continue to be provided to PSTN based subscribers via a SIP based operator services architecture. It also looks at how current operator services might be provided to SIP based subscribers via such an architecture, but does not consider the larger question of the need for or usefulness or suitability of each of these services for SIP based subscribers. Ensure that there are no virtual links or ASBRs in the proposed stub area.

Optional address-family ipv6 unicast. Optional area area-id default-cost cost. Optional Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode. Optional Sets the cost metric for the default summary route sent into this stub area. This shows how to create a stub area that blocks all summary route updates:.

You can create a totally stubby area a nd prevent all summary route updates from going into the stub area. To create a totally stubby area, use the following command in router configuration mode:. Creates this area as a totally stubby area. An NSSA can be configured with the following optional parameters:. Ensure that there are no virtual links in the proposed NSSA and that it is not the backbone area. This example shows how to create an NSSA that blocks all summary route updates:.

This example shows how to create an NSSA that generates a default route:. This example shows how to create an NSSA that filters external routes and blocks all summary route updates:. You can add more than one area to an existing OSPFv3 interface. The additional logical interfaces support multi-area adjacency. Adds the interface to another area. This example shows how to add a second area to an OSPFv3 interface:. A virt ual link connects an isolated area to the backbone area through an intermediate area.

You can configure the following optional parameters for a virtual link:. Note You must configure the virtual link on both routers involved before the link becomes active. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 virtual-link [ brief ]. Creates one end of a virtual link to a remote router.

You must create the virtual link on that remote router to complete the link. You can configure the following optional commands in virtual link configuration mode:. The default is 5. These examples show how to create a simple virtual link between two ABRs:. You can configure the following optional parameters for route redistribution in OSPF:.

Note Default information originate ignores match statements in the optional route map. Create the necessary route maps used for redistribution. Redistributes the selected protocol into OSPFv3 through the configured route map. Use the following optional keywords:. Note This command ignores match statements in the route map. Sets the cost metric for the redistributed routes. This command does not apply to directly connected routes.

Use a route map to set the default metric for directly connected routes. Route redistribution can add many routes to the OSPFv3 route table. You can configure a maximum limit to the number of routes accepted from external protocols.

OSPFv3 provides the following options to configure redistributed route limits:. Optional show running-config ospfv3. Specifies a maximum number of prefixes that OSPFv2 distributes. Optionally, specifies the following:. This example shows how to limit the number of redistributed routes into OSPF:. You can configur e route summarization for inter-area routes by configuring an address range that is summarized.

You can also configure route summarization for external, redistributed routes by configuring a summary address for those routes on an ASBR. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 summary-address. The cost range is from 0 to Creates a summary address on an ASBR for a range of addresses and optionally assigns a tag for this summary address that can be used for redistribution with route maps.

This example shows how to create summary addresses between areas on an ABR:. This example shows how to create summary addresses on an ASBR:. OSPFv3 includes a number of ti mers that control the behavior of protocol messages and shortest path first SPF calculations. OSPFv3 includes the following optional timer parameters:. At the interface level, you can also control the following timers:. Sets the LSA arrival time in milliseconds.

The range is from 10 to The default is milliseconds. Sets the interval in seconds for grouping LSAs. Sets the rate limit in milliseconds for generating LSAs. You can configure the following timers:. The default value is 50 milliseconds. The default value is milliseconds. Sets the SPF best path schedule initial delay time and the minimum hold time in seconds between SPF best path calculations. The default is no delay time and millisecond hold time.

Sets the estimated time in seconds between LSAs transmitted from this interface. Sets the estimated time in seconds to transmit an LSA to a neighbor. This example shows how to control LSA flooding with the lsa-group-pacing option:. Graceful restart is enabled by defau lt.

You can configure the following optional parameters for graceful restart in an OSPFv3 instance:. Ensure that all neighbors are configured for graceful restart with matching optional parameters set. Enables graceful restart. A graceful restart is enabled by default. Sets the grace period, in seconds. The range is from 5 to The default is 60 seconds.

Disables helper mode. Enabled by default. Configures graceful restart for planned restarts only. This shows how to enable graceful restart if it has been disabled and set the grace period to seconds:. You can restart an OSPv3 instance.

This action clears all neighbors for the instance. To restart an OSPFv3 instance and remove all associated neighbors, use the following command:. Restarts the OSPFv3 instance and removes all neighbors. Note Configure all other parameters for an interface after you configure the VRF for an interface. Configuring a VRF for an interface deletes all the configuration for that interface. Optional maximum-paths paths.

Use this command for load balancing. Configures an IP address for this interface. You must do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF. Assigns this interface to the OSPFv3 instance and area configured. To display the OSPFv3 c onfiguration, perform one of the following tasks:. Displays lists of information related to the OSPFv3 database for a specific router. Displays the OSPFv3 interface configuration. Displays the neighbor information.

Use the clear ospfv3 neighbors command to remove adjacency with all neighbors. Displays a list of LSAs requested by a router. Displays a list of LSAs waiting to be retransmitted. Displays a list of all summary address redistribution information configured under an OSPFv3 instance. Displays the current running OSPFv3 configuration.

To display OSPFv3 statistics, use the following commands:. Displays the OSPFv3 memory usage statistics. Displays the OSPFv3 route policy statistics for an area. Displays the OSPFv3 route policy statistics. Displays the OSPFv3 event counters.

Displays the OSPFv3 packet counters. This example shows how to configure OSPFv The following topics can give more information on OSPF:. For additional information related to implementing OSPF, see the following sections:. Table lists the release history for this feature.

Added support for setting the passive interface mode on all interfaces in the router or VRF. Configuring OSPFv3. Neighbors An OSPFv3 interface must have a compatible configuration with a remote interface before the two can be considered neighbors. Priority—Priority of the neighbor router. State—Indication of whether the neighbor has just been heard from, is in the process of setting up bidirectional communications, is sharing the link-state information, or has achieved full adjacency.

Dead time—Indication of how long since the last Hello packet was received from this neighbor. Local interface—The local interface that received the Hello packet for this neighbor. Adjacency Not all neighbors establis h adjacency. Network types are as follows: Point-to-point—A network that exists only between two routers. All neighbors on a point-to-point network establish adjacency and there is no DR. Broadcast—A network with multiple routers that can communicate over a shared medium that allows broadcast traffic, such as Ethernet.

An area is a logical division of routers and links within an OSPFv3 domain that creates separate subdomains. LSA flooding is contained within an area, and the link-state database is limited to links within the area. You can assign an area ID to the interfaces within the defined area.

The Area ID is a bit value that can be expressed as a number or in dotted decimal notation, such as Cisco NX-OS always displays the area in dotted decimal notation. If you define more than one area in an OSPFv3 network, you must also define the backbone area, which has the reserved area ID of 0. If you have more than one area, then one or more routers become area border routers ABRs. An ABR connects to both the backbone area and at least one other defined area see Figure AS scope—LSA is flooded throughout the routing domain.

Multi-Area Adjacency OSPFv3 multi-area adjacency allows you to configure a link on the primary interface that is in more than one area. OSPFv3 features that are specific to an address family are as follows: Default routes Route summarization Route redistribution Filter lists for border routers SPF optimization Use the address-family ipv6 unicast command to enter the IPv6 unicast address family configuration mode when configuring these features.

Stub areas have the following requirements: All routers in the stub area are stub routers. No ASBR routers exist in the stub area. You cannot configure virtual links in the stub area. Route Redistribution OSPFv3 can le arn routes from other routing protocols by using route redistribution. The two types of summarization are as follows: Inter-area route summarization External route summarization You configure inter-area route summarization on ABRs, summarizing routes between areas in the autonomous system.

Stateful restart is used in the following scenarios: First recovery attempt after the process experiences problems ISSU User-initiated switchover using the system switchover command Graceful restart is used in the following scenarios: Second recovery attempt after the process experiences problems within a 4-minute interval Manual restart of the process using the restart ospfv3 command Active supervisor removal Active supervisor reload using the reload module active-sup command Multiple OSPFv3 Instances Cisco NX-OS s upports multiple instances of the OSPFv3 protocol.

These timers include exponential backoff for subsequent SPF calculations. You must be logged on to the switch. You have installed the Enterprise Services license. You have completed the OSPFv3 network strategy and planning for your network. For example, you must decide whether multiple areas are required. You are familiar with IPv6 addressing and basic configuration. Cisco NX-OS displays areas in dotted decimal notation regardless of whether you enter the area in decimal or dotted decimal notation.

Optional show feature 4. If you do not use this parameter, the router ID selection algorithm is used. Administrative distance—Rates the trustworthiness of a routing information source. Maximum paths—Sets the maximum number of equal paths that OSPFv3 installs in the route table for a particular destination. Use this parameter for load balancing between multiple paths. The calculated cost is the reference bandwidth divided by the interface bandwidth.

You can override the calculated cost by assigning a link cost when a network is added to the OSPFv3 instance. Optional router-id ip-address 4. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag 5. ABRs have the following optional configuration parameters: Area range—Configures route summarization between areas. ASBRs also support filter lists. This example shows how to enable graceful restart if it has been disabled: switch configure terminal switch config router ospfv3 switch config-router address-family ipv6 unicast switch config-router-af area 0.

Optional address-family ipv6 unicast 5. Optional area area-id default-cost cost 6. This shows how to create a stub area that blocks all summary route updates: switch configure terminal switch config router ospfv3 switch config-router area 0. Default information originate—Generates a Type-7 LSA for a default route to the external autonomous system. Route map—Filters the external routes so that only those routes you want are flooded throughout the NSSA and other areas.

This example shows how to create an NSSA that blocks all summary route updates: switch configure terminal switch config router ospfv3 switch config-router area 0. You can configure the following optional parameters for a virtual link: Dead interval—Sets the time that a neighbor waits for a Hello packet before declaring the local router as dead and tearing down adjacencies. Hello interval—Sets the time between successive Hello packets.

Retransmit interval—Sets the estimated time between successive LSAs. Transmit delay—Sets the estimated time to transmit an LSA to a neighbor. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 virtual-link [ brief ] 5. These examples show how to create a simple virtual link between two ABRs: Configuration for ABR 1 router ID DB is as follows: switch configure terminal switch config router ospfv3 switch config-router area 0.

Default metric—Sets all redistributed routes to the same cost metric. Use the following optional keywords: always —Always generates the default route of 0. OSPFv3 does not accept any more redistributed routes. You can optionally configure a threshold percentage of the maximum where OSPFv3 logs a warning when that threshold is passed.

OSPFv3 continues to accept redistributed routes. After the timeout period, OSPFv3 requests all redistributed routes if the current number of redistributed routes is less than the maximum limit. If the current number of redistributed routes is at the maximum limit, OSPFv3 withdraws all redistributed routes. You must clear this condition before OSPFv3 accepts more redistributed routes. You can optionally configure the timeout period. Optional show running-config ospfv3 7.

Optionally, specifies the following: threshold —Percent of maximum prefixes that triggers a warning message. The num-retries range is from 1 to The timeout range is from 60 to seconds. The default is seconds. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 summary-address 7. This example shows how to create summary addresses between areas on an ABR: switch configure terminal switch config router ospfv3 switch config-router address-family ipv6 unicast switch config-router area 0. LSAs that arrive faster than this time are dropped.

This timer controls how frequently LSAs are generated after a topology change occurs. At the interface level, you can also control the following timers: Retransmit interval—Sets the estimated time between successive LSAs. You can configure the following timers: start-time —The range is from 50 to milliseconds. This example shows how to control LSA flooding with the lsa-group-pacing option: switch configure terminal switch config router ospf switch config-router timers lsa-group-pacing switch config-router copy running-config startup-config Configuring Graceful Restart Graceful restart is enabled by defau lt.

You can configure the following optional parameters for graceful restart in an OSPFv3 instance: Grace period—Configures how long neighbors should wait after a graceful restart has started before tearing down adjacencies. OSPFv3 does not participate in the graceful restart of a neighbor. Planned graceful restart only—Configures OSPFv3 to support graceful restart only in the event of a planned restart. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag 8.

This shows how to enable graceful restart if it has been disabled and set the grace period to seconds: switch configure terminal switch config router ospfv3 switch config-router graceful-restart switch config-router graceful-restart grace-period switch config-router copy running-config startup-config Restarting an OSPFv3 Instance You can restart an OSPv3 instance.

Optional maximum-paths paths 6. OSPFv3 4.

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Therefore, Flex-Algorithm cannot be deployed in the absence of SR. The END. Like any endpoint behavior, END. DTM contains a function and arguments. The arguments determine MPLS-label stack contents and the next hop. This document describes an architecture for a Network Function Interconnect NFIX that allows for interworking of physical and virtual network functions in a unified and scalable manner across wide-area network and data center domains while maintaining the ability to deliver against SLAs.

In case operators decide to delay BGPsec path validation, none of the available states do properly represent this decision. This document introduces "Unverified" as a well-defined validation state which allows to properly identify a non-evaluated BGPsec routes as not verified. This document introduces "Unverified" as well-defined validation state which allows to properly identify route prefixes as not evaluated according to RPKI route origin validation.

There is a lot of confusion about media-types, content-types, and related terminology. This memo is an attempt at clearing it up, so we can use consistent terminology in CoRE and related specifications. It also defines some ABNF that can be used in these specifications.

For debugging, it is often helpful to have information about the implementation of a peer. These options enable faster transmission rates for large amounts of data with less packet interchanges as well as supporting faster recovery should any of the blocks get lost in transmission. This document proposes a new approach for deploying Ethernet LAN ELAN services with an objective of achieving high scalability, faster network convergence, and reduced operational complexity.

Furthermore, it naturally brings the benefits of All-Active multihoming as well as MAC learning in data-plane. This approach significantly improves scalability and convergence of control plane, and simplifies network operation.

Furthermore, it naturally yields All-Active multi-homing support for E-Line services without relying on any overlay techniques. It significantly improves scalability and convergence of the L3VPN control plane. K, Daniel Migault. This document describes one common use case, namely that of clients that connect to a network but where they cannot securely authenticate the identity of that network. In such cases the client would like to learn which encrypted DNS resolvers are designated by that network or by the Do53 resolver offered by that network.

It lists requirements that any proposed discovery mechanisms should seek to address. This document specifies a protocol for advertising and discovering devices and services while preserving privacy and confidentiality.

This document specifies a way for recursive resolvers operators to signal the IP ranges and locations used by their server pools. In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance IOAM records operational and telemetry information in the packet while the packet traverses a path between two points in the network.

This document proposes several methods to ensure the integrity of IOAM data fields. This document proposes a new Geneve tunnel option and outlines how IOAM data fields are carried in the option data field. This document provides a framework for IOAM deployment and provides best current practices. This curve features: isomorphism to Miller's curve from ; low Kolmogorov complexity little room for embedded weaknesses of Gordon, Young--Yung, or Teske ; similarity to a Bitcoin curve; Montgomery form; complex multiplication by i Gallant--Lambert--Vanstone ; prime field; easy reduction, inversion, Legendre symbol, and square root; five bit-word field arithmetic; string-as-point encoding; and byte keys.

This document considers the problems that need to addressed in IP in order to address the use cases and new network services described in draft-bryant-arch-fwd-layer-uc This document considers the new and emerging use cases for IP. These use cases are difficult to address with IP in its current format and demonstrate the need to evolve the protocol.

Fast re-route FRR is a technique that allows productive forwarding to continue in a network after a failure has occurred, but before the network has has time to re-converge. This is achieved by forwarding a packet on an alternate path that will not result in the packet looping. This document describes the advantages of using PPR to provide a loop-free alternate FRR path, and provides a framework for its use in this application.

Mohamed Boucadair, Tirumaleswar Reddy. Particularly, it allows to learn an authentication domain name together with a list of IP addresses and a port number to reach such encrypted DNS servers. K, Dan Wing, Valery Smyslov. This document introduces a new approach for the Alternate Marking method. It is called Big Data Multipoint Alternate Marking method and, starting from the methodology described in RFC and RFC , it explains how to implement performance measurement analytics on the Network Management System by analysing the raw data of the network nodes.

Hybrid key exchange refers to executing two independent key exchanges and feeding the two resulting shared secrets into a Pseudo Random Function PRF , with the goal of deriving a secret which is as secure as the stronger of the two key exchanges. This document describes new hybrid key exchange schemes for the Transport Layer Security 1. There are use cases, specifically in Internet of Things IoT and constrained environments that do not require confidentiality, though message integrity for all communications and mutual authentication during tunnel establishment are both still mandated.

Examples of such use cases are given, although a threat model is necessary to determine whether or not a given situation falls into this catergory of use cases. The approach described in this document is not endorsed by the IETF and does not have IETF consensus, but is presented here to enable interoperable implementation of a reduced security mechanism that provides authentication and message integrity without supporting confidentiality.

The productive output of an IETF working group is documents, as mandated by the working group's charter. When a working group is ready to develop a particular document, the most common mechanism is for it to "adopt" an existing document as a starting point. The document that a working group adopts and then develops further is based on initial input at varying levels of maturity.

An initial working group draft might be a document already in wide use, or it might be a blank sheet, wholly created by the working group, or it might represent any level of maturity in between. This document discusses how a working group typically handles the formal documents that it targets for publication.

The finishing process for a document that is approved for publication as an RFC currently involves a somewhat detailed and lengthy process. The system that executes that process involves a number of different actors, each bringing competency with different aspects of the overall process.

Ensuring that this process functions smoothly is critical to the mission of the organizations that publish documents in the RFC series. This document proposes a framework for that system that aims to provide clear delineations of accountability and responsibility for each of the actors in this system. This structure helps further scale of the PPR and reduce domain level global entries needed in some data planes. Note to Readers This draft should be discussed on the rfc-interest mailing list.

Online access to all versions and files is available on GitHub. This document specifies how to carry colored path advertisement via an enhancement to the existing protocol BGP Label Unicast. It would allow backward compatibility with RFC The operation is similar to Segment Routing. This proposed protocol will convey the necessary reachability information to the ingress PE node to construct an end to end path.

There is a major change of protocol format starting from this updated draft. If the ingress LER cannot impose the full label stack, it can use the assistance of one or more delegation hops along the path of the LSP to impose parts of the label stack. This document defines the procedures for a PLR to provide local protection against transit node failures using facility backup for these tunnels.

The procedures defined in this document include protection against delegation hop failures. This document describes a solution to the Internet address depletion issue through the use of an existing Option mechanism that is part of the original IPv4 protocol. It is in full conformance with the IPv4 protocol, and supports not only both direct and private network connectivity, but also their interoperability. EzIP deployments may coexist with existing Internet traffic and IoTs Internet of Things operations without perturbing their setups, while offering end-users the freedom to indepdently choose which service.

EzIP may be implemented as a software or firmware enhancement to Internet edge routers or private network routing gateways, wherever needed, or simply installed as an inline adjunct hardware module between the two, enabling a seamless introduction.

The M case detailed here establishes a complete spherical layer of routers for interfacing between the Internet fabic core plus edge routers and the end user premises. Incorporating caching proxy technology in the gateway, a fairly large geographical region may enjoy address expansion based on as little as one ordinary IPv4 public address utilizing IP packets with degenerated EzIP header.

If IPv4 public pool allocations were reorganized, the assignable pool could be multiplied M fold or even more. Enabling hierarchical address architecture which facilitates both hierarchical and mesh routing, EzIP can provide nearly the same order of magnitude of address pool resources as IPv6 while streamlining the administrative aspects of it. The basic EzIP will immediately resolve local IPv4 address shortage, while being transparent to the rest of the Internet. Under the Dual-Stack environment, these proposed interim facilities will relieve the IPv4 address shortage issue, while affording IPv6 more time to reach maturity for providing the availability levels required for delivering a long-term general service.

It does not have any per-flow state in the core of the domain. For a multicast packet to an egress node of the domain, when the egress node fails, its upstream hop as a PLR sends the packet to the egress' backup node once the PLR detects the failure. It does not have any per-flow state in the core.

For a multicast packet to traverse a node in the domain, when the node fails, its upstream hop as a PLR reroutes the packet around the failed node once it detects the failure. This could empower networks to quickly and accurately figure out they're being victimized.

Both approaches are beneficial for route hijack detection. This document proposed the minimum value setting mechanism of HTTP2. This draft defines extensions to BGP-LS protocol in order to advertise the information of the transport slice. This document describes protocol extensions to BGP for improving the reliability or availability of a network controlled by a controller cluster.

This document describes protocol extensions to OSPF and IS-IS for improving the reliability or availability of a network controlled by a controller cluster. This document specifies extensions to PCEP protocol when a PCE-based controller is also responsible for configuring the forwarding actions on the routers, in addition to computing the paths for packet flows in a BIER-TE network and telling the edge routers what instructions to attach to packets as they enter the network.

So that IFIT behavior can be enabled automatically when the path is instantiated. A link or node failure can significantly impact network services in large-scale networks. Therefore it is important to ensure the survivability of large scale networks which consist of various connections provided over multiple interconnected networks with varying technologies. This document examines the applicability of the PCE architecture, protocols, and procedures for computing protection paths and restoration services, for single and multi-domain networks.

This document presents three scenarios from the Internet Service Providers' perspective as an supplement use case of the RATS work group. And make some discussions of access authentication, application authentication and trusted link.

The requirements of trusted link is put forward to establish a protecttive network connection, thus ensure the native network security. The current local repair mechanism, e. This mechanism could not work properly when the failure happens in the destination point or the link connected to the destination.

When the endpoint fails, local repair couldn't work on the direct neighbor of the failed endpoint either. This document defines midpoint protection, which enables the direct neighbor of the failed endpoint to do the function of the endpoint, replace the IPv6 destination address to the other endpoint, and choose the next hop based on the new destination address.

The Handle System is a global name service that allows secured handle resolution and administration over the public Internet according to [1][5][3]. Handle System protocol [3] is designed to be transmitted as a byte stream via a TCP connection. In this document, SM2 and SM3 algorithms [4][5]are introduced into the handle system to enhance the security and compactivity. Trusted resolution and message credential are extended to support SM2 and SM3 algorithms. This enables that U-BFD works not only for one hop scenario but for multiple hops scenario as well.

In addition, this document also defines a way to explicitly specify the loop back path of the Echo packets. This is useful in the case where the forward and reverse path of the Echo packets are required to follow the same path. Specified in XML, the mapping defines EPP command syntax and semantics as applied to enterprise and identifier management.

The Handle System [1][2]is a name service system for handle resolution and management over the public Internet. This document describes a Trusted Resolution System and the protocol extension based on Handle System protocol. Trusted resolution aims to achieve credibility verification through data signing. The Trusted Resolution System determines whether to perform trusted resolution and verification on the response according to the trusted flag requested by the client.

This document defines the encapsulation for MPLS performance measurement with alternate marking method, which performs flow-based packet loss, delay, and jitter measurements on live traffic. This document describes the requirements and challenges to employ artificial intelligence AI into the constraint Internet of Things IoT service environment for embedding intelligence and increasing efficiency. The IoT service environment includes heterogeneous and multiple IoT devices and systems that work together in a cooperative and intelligent way to manage homes, buildings, and complex autonomous systems.

Therefore, it is becoming very essential to integrate IoT and AI technologies to increase the synergy between them. However, there are several limitations to achieve AI enabled IoT as the availability of IoT devices is not always high, and IoT networks cannot guarantee a certain level of performance in real-time applications due to resource constraints. With AI enabled IoT, the IoT service environment can be intelligently managed in order to compensate for the unexpected performance degradation often caused by abnormal situations.

In this document, we consider the content caching design without requiring historical content access information or content popularity profiles in a hierarchical cellular network architecture. Our design aims to dynamically select caching locations for different contents where caching locations can be content servers, cloud units CUs , and base stations BSs. Our design objective is to support as high content request rates as possible while maintaining the finite service time.

This document describes few 5G mobility scenarios and how mobile network functions map its SST criteria to identifiers in IP packets that transport segments use to grant transport layer services. This document explores the nuances around the terminology and usage of various IS-IS address families, topologies with different considerations, for choosing the right combination for a specific deployment scenario. PPR uses a simple encapsulation to add the path identity to the packet. PPR can also be used to mitigate the MTU and data plane processing issues that may result from Segment Routing SR packet overhead; and also supports further extensions along the paths.

This document proposes extension of probabilistic routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity PRoPHET for information centric network. G-SRv6 is fully compatible with SRv6 with no modification of SRH, no new address consumption, no new route creation, and even no modification of control plane. Therefore, it is necessary to consider other types of segments or sub-paths in the end-to-end SRv6 network programming. This document also defines the mechanisms of Generalized SRv6 Networking Programming and the requirements of related protocol extensions of control plane and data plane.

This document proposes a YANG module that provides per-node capabilities for optimum operational data collection. This module defines augmented nodes to publish the metadata information specific to YANG node-identifier as per ietf-system- capabilities datatree. Complementary RPCs, based on the same node capabilities, simplify the data collection operations. This architecture aims at assuring that service instances are correctly running.

As services rely on multiple sub-services by the underlying network devices, getting the assurance of a healthy service is only possible with a holistic view of network devices. This architecture not only helps to correlate the service degradation with the network root cause but also the impacted services when a network component fails or degrades.

This document specifies a framework and mapping from slices in 5G mobile systems to transport slices in IP and Layer 2 transport networks. Slices in 5G systems are characterized by latency bounds, reservation guarantees, jitter, data rates, availability, mobility speed, usage density, criticality and priority.

These characteristics should be mapped to the transport network slice characteristics that include bandwidth, latency and criteria such as isolation, directionality and disjoint routes. Mobile slice criteria need to be mapped to the appropriate transport slice and capabilities offered in backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul connectivity segments between radio side network functions and user plane function gateway.

This document describes how mobile network functions map its slice criteria to identifiers in IP packets that transport network segments use to grant transport layer services during UE mobility scenarios. Applicability of this framework and underlying transport networks, which can enable different slice properties is also discussed. This document describes a methodology to monitor network performance exploiting user devices. This can be achieved using the Explicit Flow Measurement Techniques, protocol independent methods that employ few marking bits, inside the header of each packet, for loss and delay measurement.

User devices and servers, marking the traffic, signal these metrics to intermediate network observers allowing them to measure connection performance, and to locate the network segment where impairments happen. In addition or in alternative to network observers, a probe can be installed on the user device with remarkable benefits in terms of hardware deployment and measurement scalability. Service providers are starting to deploy and interconnect computing capabilities across the network for hosting network functions and applications.

In distributed computing environments, both computing and topological information are necessary in order to determine the more convenient infrastructure where to deploy such a service or application. This document raises an initial approach towards the use of ALTO to provide such information and assist in the selection of proper execution environments. New 5G services are starting to be deployed in operational networks, leveraging in a number of novel technologies and architectural concepts.

The purpose of this document is to overview the implications of 5G services in transport networks and to provide guidance on bechmarking of the infratructures supporting those services. Slicing at the transport network is expected to be offered as part of end-to-end network slices, fostered by the introduction of new services such as 5G.

This document explores the usage of intent technologies for requesting IETF network slices. The transport network is an essential component in the end-to-end delivery of services and, consequently, with the advent of network slicing it is necessary to understand what could be the way in which the transport network is consumed as a slice. This document analyses the needs of potential IETF network slice customers i. This document defines a base profile for TLS protocol versions 1.

It is also appropriate for all other US Government systems that process high-value information. The profile is made publicly available here for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments. It is made publicly available for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments. This specification defines models and schema definitions facilitating the storage of [X. Internet mail defines the From: field to indicate the author of the message's content and the Sender: field to indicate who initially handled the message, on the author's behalf.

The Sender: field is optional, if it has the same information as the From: field. That is, when the Sender: field is absent, the From: field has conflated semantics, as both a handling identifier and a content creator identifier. This was not a problem, until development of stringent protections on use of the From: field. It has prompted Mediators, such as mailing lists, to modify the From: field, to circumvent mail rejection caused by those protections. This affects end-to-end behavior of email, between the author and the final recipients, because mail from the same author is not treated the same, depending on what path it followed.

In effect, the From: field has become dominated by its role as a handling identifier. The current specification augments the altered use of the From: field, by specifying the Author: field, which identifies the original author of the message and is not subject to modification by Mediators. The address to which email is delivered might be different than any of the addresses shown in any of the content header fields that were created by the author.

Before final delivery, handling can entail a sequence of addresses that lead to the recipient. It can be helpful for a message to have a common way to record each delivery in such a sequence, and to include each address used for that recipient. This specification defines a header field for this information.

The popularity of social media has led to user comfort with easily signaling basic reactions to an author's posting, such as with a 'thumbs up' or 'smiley' graphic. This specification permits a similar facility for Internet Mail. It has the traffic engineering information on the network topology and can compute optimal paths for a given traffic flow across the network. This document describes some reference architectures for BGP as a central controller. A BGP-based central controller can simplify the operations on the network and use network resources efficiently for providing services with high quality.

This document discusses the architecture and application scenarios of fused service function chain. Fused service function chain means that two or more service function chains are fused to become a single service function chain from the view of data plane and control plane. Anyhow, some mechanism or methods need to be used when two or more service function chains are fused to be a single service function chain. This memo defines a metric for one path congestion across Internet paths.

The traditional mode evaluates network congestion based on the bandwidth utilization of the link. However, there is a lack of E2E path congestion that is truly service oriented. So A Path Congestion Metric is required. This test method can test multi-paths concurrently from one edge node to another edge node. As part of that discussion, it became obvious that people had a variety of ideas about how multiple paths would be used, because they weren't looking at the same use cases, and so had different assumptions about how applications might use QUIC over multiple paths.

This document is intended to capture questions that have come up in discussions, with some suggested answers, to inform further discussion in the working group. As part of that discussion, it became obvious that people had a variety of ideas about how multiple paths would be used, because they weren't looking at the same use cases.

This document is intended to capture that variety of ideas, to inform further discussion in the working group. Service functions are deployed as, physical or virtualized elements along with network nodes or on servers in data centers.

Segment Routing SR brings in the concept of segments which can be topological or service instructions. Service segments are SR segments that are associated with service functions. SR Policies are used for the setup of paths for steering of traffic through service functions using their service segments.

This document specifies the extensions to BGP-LS for the advertisement of service functions along their associated service segments. The BGP-LS advertisement of service function information along with the network nodes that they are attached to, or associated with, enables controllers compute and setup service paths in the network. This draft describes considerations for benchmarking network performance in containerized infrastructures. In the containerized infrastructure, Virtualized Network Functions VNFs are deployed on operating-system-level virtualization platform by abstracting the user namespace as opposed to virtualization using a hypervisor.

Leveraging this, the system configurations and networking scenarios for benchmarking will be partially changed by the way in which the resource allocation and network technologies specified for containerized VNFs. In this draft, we compare the state of the art in a container networking architecture with networking on VM-based virtualized systems, and provide several test scenarios for benchmarking network performance in containerized infrastructures.

This document specifies extensions to the QUIC protocol to enable the simultaneous usage of multiple paths for a single connection. This document proposes a mechanism to adjust IS-IS flooding speed between two adjacent routers by adjusting the sender flooding speed to the capability of the receiver.

This helps improving the flooding throughput, reducing LSPs losses and retransmissions due to receiver overload, and avoiding manual tuning of flooding parameters by the network operator. This document defines a solution to encode a slice identifier in MPLS in order to distinguish packets that belong to different slices, to allow enforcing per network slice policies. The slice identification is independent of the topology.

In order to minimize the size of the MPLS stack and to ease incremental deployment the slice identifier is encoded as part of the Entropy Label. This document also extends the use of the TTL field of the Entropy Label in order to provide a flexible set of flags called the Entropy Label Control field. This reduces the overhead for both the traffic volume and the network processor.

This draft describes a protocol by which client-side applications, running inside a web browser, can communicate with a data storage server that is hosted on a different domain name. This way, the provider of a web application need not also play the role of data storage provider. The protocol supports storing, retrieving, and removing individual documents, as well as listing the contents of an individual folder, and access control is based on bearer tokens. This document gives general rules for how to pronounce Mandarin Chinese names in conversation, and how to determine which name is someone's surname.

It also covers some other related topics about Chinese names. The intent is to allow IETF participants who are not familiar with Chinese to communicate better with Chinese participants. This document describes Tetrys, an On-The-Fly Network Coding NC protocol that can be used to transport delay and loss-sensitive data over a lossy network. Tetrys can recover from erasures within an RTT-independent delay, thanks to the transmission of coded packets.

It can be used for both unicast, multicast and anycast communications. Multipath communication enables the combination of low data rate, low latency terrestrial links and high data rate, high latency links e. However, the combination of such heterogeneous links is challenging from a technical point of view. This document describes a possible solution, i. The applicability of this approach to encrypted transport protocols e. BARE messages are concise and have a well-defined schema, and implementations may be simple and broadly compatible.

A schema language is also provided to express message schemas out-of-band. It can compute optimal paths for traffic across a network and can also update the paths to reflect changes in the network or traffic demands. PCEP has been proposed as a control protocol for use in these environments to allow the PCE to be fully enabled as a central controller. This document specifies the procedures and PCEP protocol extensions when a PCE-based controller is also responsible for configuring the forwarding actions on the routers for Segment Routing SR in IPv6 SRv6 , in addition to computing the SRv6 paths for packet flows and telling the edge routers what instructions to attach to packets as they enter the network.

This document introduces this relaxation and updates RFC Traditionally, this TED has been obtained from a link state LS routing protocol supporting the traffic engineering extensions. Lzip can achieve higher compression ratios than gzip. This document describes the lzip format and registers a media type and content encoding to be used when transporting lzip-compressed content via Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions MIME.

End-to-end cryptographic protections for e-mail messages can provide useful security. However, the standards for providing cryptographic protection are extremely flexible. That flexibility can trap users and cause surprising failures. This document offers guidance for mail user agent implementers that need to compose or interpret e-mail messages with end-to-end cryptographic protection.

It provides a useful set of vocabulary as well as suggestions to avoid common failures. This document describes the Network File System NFS version 4 minor version 1, including features retained from the base protocol NFS version 4 minor version 0, which is specified in RFC and protocol extensions made subsequently.

The later minor version has no dependencies on NFS version 4 minor version 0, and is considered a separate protocol. This document obsoletes RFC In addition to many corrections and clarifications, it relies on NFSv4-wide documents to substantially revise the treatment of protocol extension, internationalization, and security, superseding the descriptions of those aspects of the protocol appearing in RFCs and It substantially revises the treatment of features relating to multi-server namespace, superseding the description of those features appearing in RFC This is intended to provide a helpful point of comparision for drafts leading to an eventual rfcbis to enable use of rfcdiff when reviewing such drafts.

This document discusses the inadequate approach to security within the family of NFSv4 protocol specifications and proposes steps to correct the situation. Because the security architecture is similar for all NFSv4 minor versions, we recommend a single new standards- track document to encapsulate NFSv4 security fundamentals, and propose the introduction of several additional security-related documents. A Virtual Transport Network VTN is a virtual network which has a customized network topology and a set of dedicated or shared network resources allocated from the network infrastructure.

In packet forwarding, some fields in data packet needs to be used to identify the VTN the packet belongs to, so that the VTN-specific processing can be performed. The procedure for processing of the VTN option is also specified. BGP has been used to distribute different types of routing and policy information. In some cases, the information distributed may be only intended for one or a particular group of BGP nodes in the network.

Currently BGP does not have a generic mechanism of designating the target nodes of the routing information. Segment Routing SR Policy is a set of candidate paths, each consisting of one or more segment lists and the associated information. The header of a packet steered in an SR Policy is augmented with an ordered list of segments associated with that SR Policy. In scenarios where multiple Virtual Transport Networks VTNs exist in the network, the VTN in which the SR policy is instantiated may also need to be specified, so that the header of packet can also be augmented with the information associated with the VTN.

Segment Routing SR leverages the source routing paradigm. A node steers a packet through an ordered list of instructions, called "segments". A segment can represent topological or service based instructions. A segment can further be associated with a set of network resources used for executing the instruction. Such a segment is called resource-aware segment. This document defines a new SRv6 network function which can be used for SRv6 inter-layer network programming.

It is a variant of the End. X function. Instead of pointing to an L3 adjacency, this function points to an underlay interface. Future networks that support advanced services, such as those enabled by 5G mobile networks, envision a set of overlay networks each with different performance and scaling properties. These overlays are known as network slices and are realized over a common underlay network. This document sets out such a mechanism for use in Segment Routing networks.

This draft defines an IPv4 option containing a flowlabel that is compatible to IPv6. It is required for simplified usage of IntServ and interoperability with IPv6. This document describes the applicability of the Reliable Server Pooling architecture to manage real-time distributed computing pools and access the resources of such pools. This document contains the definition of a delay measurement infrastructure and a delay-sensitive Least-Used policy for Reliable Server Pooling.

This document collects some idea for a next generation of the Reliable Server Pooling framework. This facilitates porting existing applications to use a subset of NEAT's functionality. It is a result of lessons learned from more than one decade of SCTP deployment.

This document explores the scope, use-cases and requirements for a BGP based routing solution to establish end-to-end intent-aware paths across a multi-domain service provider network environment. This document introduces a new usecase of Application-aware IPv6 Networking to enable data-driven accounting. This document introduces a method to decrease the micro-bursts in Layer3 network for low-latency traffic.

There will be a relatively small number of published version numbers for the foreseeable future. This document provides a method for clients and servers to negotiate the use of other version numbers in subsequent connections and encrypts Initial Packets using secret keys instead of standard ones.

If a sizeable subset of QUIC connections use this mechanism, this should prevent middlebox ossification around the current set of published version numbers and the contents of QUIC Initial packets, as well as improving the protocol's privacy properties. The IETF firmly believes in the value of in-person meetings to reach consensus on documents.

However, various emergencies can make a planned in-person meeting impossible. This document provides criteria for making this judgment. This is the specification for an experimental show of hands tool for the Meetecho system to be used in online meetings to help chairs quickly poll the meeting. This tool is different from the previous experimental virtual hum tool as it addresses a different use case with different functionality. The JSON format includes the overall structure along with the semantic associated for each respective key.

This draft describes an IPv6 solution that enables packets from an application on a UE User Equipment sticking to the same application server location when the UE moves from one 5G cell site to another. The goal is to improve latency and performance for 5G Edge Computing services. The extension enables a feature, called soft anchoring, which makes one Edge Computing Server at one specific location to be more preferred than others for the same application to receive packets from a specific source UE.

Those measurements are for IP network to dynamically optimize the forwarding of 5G edge computing service without any knowledge above IP layer. CR-preload] and the "" status code [RFC]. In order to improve performance and reduce bandwidth usage, the server can omit the fields not requested.

This document describes a stateless NAT64 extension which allows for creation of reliable tunnels between islands of IPv6 deployment. A principal feature of EVPN is the ability to support multihoming from a customer equipment CE to multiple provider edge equipment PE active with all-active links. This draft specifies an improvement to load balancing such links. A principal feature of EVPN is the ability to support multihoming from a customer equipment CE to multiple provider edge equipment PE with all-active links.

These URIs identify algorithms and types of information. This document corrects three errata against and obsoletes RFC The intent is to keep this draft alive while it accumulates updates until it seems reasonable to publish the next version. IETF Hackathons encourage developers to collaborate and develop utilities, ideas, sample code and solutions that show practical implementations of IETF standards. Watching videos Contents from mobile devices has been causing most of the network traffic and is projected to remain to increase exponentially.

Thus, numerous types of content and chunk based caching schemes have been proposed to handle the increasing traffic. Those caching schemes cache the whole videos at the edge nodes, but most of the users view only the beginning of the videos.

Hence, caching the complete video on the edge node is an ineffective solution to reduce the network traffic as well as to improve the cache utilization. Thus, a chunk-level caching scheme to store popular videos partially and a smart prefetching scheme is needed to provide the missing chunks of the video.

This Internet-Draft will expire on August 09, It differs from the current TCP standards only in the congestion control algorithm on the sender side. In particular, it uses a cubic function instead of a linear window increase function of the current TCP standards to improve scalability and stability under fast and long-distance networks.

CUBIC and its predecessor algorithm have been adopted as defaults by Linux and have been used for many years. This document specifies several usecases related to the different ways IoT devices are exploited by malicious adversaries to instantiate Distributed Denial of Services DDoS attacks. The attacks are generted from IoT devices that have no proper protection against generating unsolicited communication messages targeting a certain network and creating large amounts of network traffic.

The attackers take advantage of breaches in the configuration data in unprotected IoT devices exploited for DDoS attacks. The attackers take advantage of the IoT devices that can send network packets that were generated by malicious code that interacts with an OS implementation that runs on the IoT devices. The major enabler of such attacks is related to IoT devices that have no OS or unprotected EE OS and run code that is downloaded to them from the TA and modified by man-in-the-middle that inserts malicious code in the OS.

The new data reduction attributes are proposed to allow the client application to communicate to the NFSv4 server data reduction attributes associated with files and directories using new metadata, communicated to the Block Storage data reduction engines. Such data reduction metadata is used as hints to the file server about what type of data reduction to apply.

The proposed data reduction attributes include achievable ratios for compression and deduplication plus whether each data reduction technique applies to a file or directory. Acknowledgement packets ACKs are used by transport protocols to confirm the delivery of packets, and their reception is used in a variety of other ways to measure path round trip time, to gauge path congestion, etc.

However, the transmission of ACKs also consumes resources at the receiver, forwarding resource in the network and processing resources at the sender. On network paths with significant path asymmetry, transmission of ACKs can limit the available throughput or can reduce the efficient use of network capacity. In these cases, reducing the ratio of ACK packets to data packets can improve link utilisation and reduce link transmission costs.

It can also reduce processing overhead at the sender and receiver. This document proposes a change to the default acknowledgement policy of the QUIC transport protocol to improve performance over paths with appreciable asymmetry. It provides guidance on the design of methods to avoid congestion collapse and to provide congestion control. Recommendations and requirements on this topic are distributed across many documents in the RFC series.

This therefore seeks to gather and consolidate these recommendations in an annexe. Based on these specifications, and Internet engineering experience, the document provides input to the design of new congestion control methods in protocols. The present document is for discussion and comment by the IETF. It allows a datagram application that uses this PL, to discover the largest size of datagram that can be sent across a network path.

This document describes the changes between Unicode 6. Some additions and changes have been made in the Unicode Standard that affect the values produced by the algorithm IDNA specifies. Although IDNA allows adding exceptions to the algorithm for backward compatibility; however, this document does not add any such exceptions. This document provides the necessary tables to IANA to make its database consisstent with Unicode To improve understanding, this document describes systems that are being used as alternatives to those that conform to IDNA This draft describes how the LISP mapping system designed to be distributed for scale can also be decentralized for management and trust.

During the early weeks and months of the COVID pandemic, significant changes to Internet usage occurred as a result of a sudden global shift to people working, studying and quarantining at home. One aspect that this affected was interconnection between networks, which this paper studies. This paper explores some of the effects of these changes on Internet interconnection points, in terms of utilization, traffic ratios, and other performance characteristics such as latency.

These are described in this document. The objective is to document the problem space and make suggestions that could help inform network operators on how to take account of DoH deployment. This document also identifies topics that may require further analysis. This document reminds the existence of the "Segment Routing SR MPLS data-plane with IPv6 control-plane" solution that is mature from a standardization, productization and commercial deployment viewpoint.

Segment Routing SR allows a headend node to steer a packet flow along any path. SR Policy framework enables the instantiation and the management of necessary state on the headend node for flows along a source routed paths using an ordered list of segments associated with their specific SR Policies. This document describes some of the implementation and deployment aspects that are useful for operationalizing the SR Policy architecture. This solution leverages the SRv6 Network Programming model.

With the growing interconnection of devices, cyber-security and data protection are of increasing importance. This is especially the case regarding cyber-physical systems due to their close entanglement with the physical world. Misbehavior and information leakage can lead to financial and physical damage and endanger human lives and well- being.

Thus, hard security and privacy requirements are necessary to be met. Furthermore, a thorough investigation of incidents is essential for ultimate protection. In-network computing allows the processing of traffic and data directly in the network and at line- rate. Thus, the in-network computing paradigm presents a promising solution for efficiently providing security and privacy mechanisms as well as event analysis.

This document discusses select mechanisms to demonstrate how in-network computing concepts can be applied to counter existing shortcomings of cyber-security and data privacy. This document describes the fundamental and unique style conventions and editorial policies currently in use for the RFC Series. Additional guidance is captured on a website that reflects the experimental nature of that guidance and prepares it for future inclusion in the RFC Style Guide.

Hese include hash functions that result in signatures with significantly smaller than the signatures using the current parameter sets, and should have sufficient security. This Internet-Draft describes a hierarchical addressing scheme for IPv6, intentionally very much simplified to allow for very fast source routing experimentation using simple forwarding nodes.

Research groups evaluate achievable latency reduction for special applications such as radio access networks, industrial networks or other networks requiring very low latency. When security vulnerabilities are discovered by researchers, proper reporting channels are often lacking. As a result, vulnerabilities may be left unreported. This document defines a format "security.

This document outlines how ACME can be used by a client to obtain a certificate for a subdomain identifier from a certification authority. The client has fulfilled a challenge against a parent domain but does not need to fulfil a challenge against the explicit subdomain as certificate policy allows issuance of the subdomain certificate without explicit subdomain ownership proof. With the development of edge computing, there is a trend that computing is widely deployed in network rather than at other end of network, and provides services at nearer location.

With the deep integration of network, traditional optimization and scheduling within network domain is not enough, the endpoint of the path matters a lot. So the relationship between computing and network are new and important topics to be studied. This document focus on the requirements of computing and network joint optimization and scheduling based on the newly arising service requirements. This document defines delegation information signer DiS resource record for protecting the delegation information, by inserting on the parent side of zone cut to hold a hash of delegation information.

This document also describes the usage of DiS resource record and shows the implications on security-aware resolvers. This document describes how the Alternate Marking Method can be used as the passive performance measurement tool in an SRv6 network. This document discusses additional data fields and associated data types to be added to the IOAM data fileds described in [I-D.

Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag. Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured instance tag. This ID uses the dotted decimal notation and identifies this OSPFv3 instance and must exist on a configured interface in the system.

Example :. To remove the OSPFv3 instance and all associated configuration, use the following command in configuration mode:. Deletes the OSPFv3 instance and all associated configuration. You must manually remove any OSPFv3 commands configured in interface mode. You can configure the following optional parameters for OSPFv3 in router configuration mode:. Generates a system message whenever a neighbor changes state.

Suppresses routing updates on all interfaces. This command is overridden by the VRF or interface command mode configuration. You can configure the following optional parameters for OSPFv3 in address family configuration mode:. Configures the administrative distance for this OSPFv3 instance. The range is from 1 to The default is Configures the maximum number of equal OSPFv3 paths to a destination in the route table.

The default is 8. This command is used for load balancing. This example shows how to create an OSPFv3 instance:. You can add all networks to the default backbone area Area 0 , or you can create new areas using any decimal number or an IP address.

Note All areas must connect to the backbone area either directly or through a virtual link. Enters interface configuration mode. Assigns an IPv6 address to this interface. Adds the interface to the OSPFv3 instance and area. You can configure the following optional parameters for OSPFv3 in interface configuration mode:. Configures the OSPFv3 cost metric for this interface. The default is to calculate a cost metric, based on the reference bandwidth and interface bandwidth.

Configures the OSPFv3 dead interval, in seconds. The default is four times the hello interval, in seconds. Configures the OSPFv3 hello interval, in seconds. The default is 10 seconds. The range is from 0 to The default is 0. The instance ID is link-local in scope. Suppresses routing updates on the interface. This command overrides the router or VRF command mode configuration. The default option removes this interface mode command and reverts to the router or VRF configuration, if present.

The default is 1. Shuts down the OSPFv3 instance on this interface. This example shows how to add a network area 0. You can separate your OSPFv3 domain into a series of areas that contain related networks. All areas must connect to the backbone area through an area border router ABR. ABRs have the following optional configuration parameters:. Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode. This example shows how to enable graceful restart if it has been disabled:.

You can configure a stub area for p art of an OSPFv3 domain where external traffic is not necessary. You can optionally block all summary routes from going into the stub area. Ensure that there are no virtual links or ASBRs in the proposed stub area. Optional address-family ipv6 unicast. Optional area area-id default-cost cost.

Optional Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode. Optional Sets the cost metric for the default summary route sent into this stub area. This shows how to create a stub area that blocks all summary route updates:. You can create a totally stubby area a nd prevent all summary route updates from going into the stub area. To create a totally stubby area, use the following command in router configuration mode:. Creates this area as a totally stubby area. An NSSA can be configured with the following optional parameters:.

Ensure that there are no virtual links in the proposed NSSA and that it is not the backbone area. This example shows how to create an NSSA that blocks all summary route updates:. This example shows how to create an NSSA that generates a default route:. This example shows how to create an NSSA that filters external routes and blocks all summary route updates:.

You can add more than one area to an existing OSPFv3 interface. The additional logical interfaces support multi-area adjacency. Adds the interface to another area. This example shows how to add a second area to an OSPFv3 interface:. A virt ual link connects an isolated area to the backbone area through an intermediate area.

You can configure the following optional parameters for a virtual link:. Note You must configure the virtual link on both routers involved before the link becomes active. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 virtual-link [ brief ]. Creates one end of a virtual link to a remote router. You must create the virtual link on that remote router to complete the link. You can configure the following optional commands in virtual link configuration mode:.

The default is 5. These examples show how to create a simple virtual link between two ABRs:. You can configure the following optional parameters for route redistribution in OSPF:. Note Default information originate ignores match statements in the optional route map. Create the necessary route maps used for redistribution. Redistributes the selected protocol into OSPFv3 through the configured route map. Use the following optional keywords:. Note This command ignores match statements in the route map.

Sets the cost metric for the redistributed routes. This command does not apply to directly connected routes. Use a route map to set the default metric for directly connected routes. Route redistribution can add many routes to the OSPFv3 route table. You can configure a maximum limit to the number of routes accepted from external protocols.

OSPFv3 provides the following options to configure redistributed route limits:. Optional show running-config ospfv3. Specifies a maximum number of prefixes that OSPFv2 distributes. Optionally, specifies the following:. This example shows how to limit the number of redistributed routes into OSPF:.

You can configur e route summarization for inter-area routes by configuring an address range that is summarized. You can also configure route summarization for external, redistributed routes by configuring a summary address for those routes on an ASBR. Optional show ipv6 ospfv3 summary-address. The cost range is from 0 to Creates a summary address on an ASBR for a range of addresses and optionally assigns a tag for this summary address that can be used for redistribution with route maps.

This example shows how to create summary addresses between areas on an ABR:. This example shows how to create summary addresses on an ASBR:. OSPFv3 includes a number of ti mers that control the behavior of protocol messages and shortest path first SPF calculations. OSPFv3 includes the following optional timer parameters:. At the interface level, you can also control the following timers:. Sets the LSA arrival time in milliseconds.

The range is from 10 to The default is milliseconds. Sets the interval in seconds for grouping LSAs. Sets the rate limit in milliseconds for generating LSAs. You can configure the following timers:. The default value is 50 milliseconds. The default value is milliseconds. Sets the SPF best path schedule initial delay time and the minimum hold time in seconds between SPF best path calculations. The default is no delay time and millisecond hold time. Sets the estimated time in seconds between LSAs transmitted from this interface.

Sets the estimated time in seconds to transmit an LSA to a neighbor. This example shows how to control LSA flooding with the lsa-group-pacing option:. Graceful restart is enabled by defau lt. You can configure the following optional parameters for graceful restart in an OSPFv3 instance:. Ensure that all neighbors are configured for graceful restart with matching optional parameters set. Enables graceful restart. A graceful restart is enabled by default. Sets the grace period, in seconds.

The range is from 5 to The default is 60 seconds. Disables helper mode. Enabled by default. Configures graceful restart for planned restarts only. This shows how to enable graceful restart if it has been disabled and set the grace period to seconds:. You can restart an OSPv3 instance. This action clears all neighbors for the instance. To restart an OSPFv3 instance and remove all associated neighbors, use the following command:. Restarts the OSPFv3 instance and removes all neighbors. Note Configure all other parameters for an interface after you configure the VRF for an interface.

Configuring a VRF for an interface deletes all the configuration for that interface. Optional maximum-paths paths. Use this command for load balancing. Configures an IP address for this interface. You must do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF. Assigns this interface to the OSPFv3 instance and area configured.

To display the OSPFv3 c onfiguration, perform one of the following tasks:. Displays lists of information related to the OSPFv3 database for a specific router. Displays the OSPFv3 interface configuration. Displays the neighbor information. Use the clear ospfv3 neighbors command to remove adjacency with all neighbors. Displays a list of LSAs requested by a router.

Displays a list of LSAs waiting to be retransmitted. Displays a list of all summary address redistribution information configured under an OSPFv3 instance. Displays the current running OSPFv3 configuration. To display OSPFv3 statistics, use the following commands:. Displays the OSPFv3 memory usage statistics. Displays the OSPFv3 route policy statistics for an area. Displays the OSPFv3 route policy statistics. Displays the OSPFv3 event counters. Displays the OSPFv3 packet counters.

This example shows how to configure OSPFv The following topics can give more information on OSPF:. For additional information related to implementing OSPF, see the following sections:. Table lists the release history for this feature. Added support for setting the passive interface mode on all interfaces in the router or VRF.

Configuring OSPFv3. Neighbors An OSPFv3 interface must have a compatible configuration with a remote interface before the two can be considered neighbors. Priority—Priority of the neighbor router. State—Indication of whether the neighbor has just been heard from, is in the process of setting up bidirectional communications, is sharing the link-state information, or has achieved full adjacency.

Dead time—Indication of how long since the last Hello packet was received from this neighbor. Local interface—The local interface that received the Hello packet for this neighbor. Adjacency Not all neighbors establis h adjacency. Network types are as follows: Point-to-point—A network that exists only between two routers. All neighbors on a point-to-point network establish adjacency and there is no DR.

Broadcast—A network with multiple routers that can communicate over a shared medium that allows broadcast traffic, such as Ethernet. An area is a logical division of routers and links within an OSPFv3 domain that creates separate subdomains. LSA flooding is contained within an area, and the link-state database is limited to links within the area.

You can assign an area ID to the interfaces within the defined area. The Area ID is a bit value that can be expressed as a number or in dotted decimal notation, such as Cisco NX-OS always displays the area in dotted decimal notation. If you define more than one area in an OSPFv3 network, you must also define the backbone area, which has the reserved area ID of 0. If you have more than one area, then one or more routers become area border routers ABRs.

An ABR connects to both the backbone area and at least one other defined area see Figure AS scope—LSA is flooded throughout the routing domain. Multi-Area Adjacency OSPFv3 multi-area adjacency allows you to configure a link on the primary interface that is in more than one area. OSPFv3 features that are specific to an address family are as follows: Default routes Route summarization Route redistribution Filter lists for border routers SPF optimization Use the address-family ipv6 unicast command to enter the IPv6 unicast address family configuration mode when configuring these features.

Stub areas have the following requirements: All routers in the stub area are stub routers. No ASBR routers exist in the stub area. You cannot configure virtual links in the stub area. Route Redistribution OSPFv3 can le arn routes from other routing protocols by using route redistribution. The two types of summarization are as follows: Inter-area route summarization External route summarization You configure inter-area route summarization on ABRs, summarizing routes between areas in the autonomous system.

Stateful restart is used in the following scenarios: First recovery attempt after the process experiences problems ISSU User-initiated switchover using the system switchover command Graceful restart is used in the following scenarios: Second recovery attempt after the process experiences problems within a 4-minute interval Manual restart of the process using the restart ospfv3 command Active supervisor removal Active supervisor reload using the reload module active-sup command Multiple OSPFv3 Instances Cisco NX-OS s upports multiple instances of the OSPFv3 protocol.

These timers include exponential backoff for subsequent SPF calculations. You must be logged on to the switch. You have installed the Enterprise Services license. You have completed the OSPFv3 network strategy and planning for your network.

For example, you must decide whether multiple areas are required. You are familiar with IPv6 addressing and basic configuration. Cisco NX-OS displays areas in dotted decimal notation regardless of whether you enter the area in decimal or dotted decimal notation.

Optional show feature 4. If you do not use this parameter, the router ID selection algorithm is used. Administrative distance—Rates the trustworthiness of a routing information source. Maximum paths—Sets the maximum number of equal paths that OSPFv3 installs in the route table for a particular destination. Use this parameter for load balancing between multiple paths.

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Here is a list of useful OSPFv3 commands. This would give the organization dual control planes for dual forwarding protocols. In this configuration, if there was a problem with either routing domain then it would not affect the other IP version. The same separation could also be achieved by running two completely different routing protocols.

Having this type of control plane and data plane separation may be exactly what some organizations are looking for. The new OSPFv3 configuration uses the "ospfv3" keyword instead of the earlier "ipv6 router ospf" routing process command and "ipv6 ospf" interface commands. However, the biggest change is in the configuration of the routing process. Following is how the new OSPFv3 syntax is used to configure a dual-protocol interface and for multi-address-family configuration under the OSPFv3 routing process.

Organizations now have multiple options for deploying OSPF. Scott Hogg is a co-founder of HexaBuild. Here are the latest Insider stories. More Insider Sign Out. Sign In Register. Sign Out Sign In Register. The adjacency between the two routers might go down during the transition period, but it should come back up afterwards.

Issue the show ip route ospfv3 and show ipv6 route ospf commands on R1. Notice that R1 still has a default route pointing toward R2 but with a different cost than it had prior to being configured in a stub area. R1 also does not receive any external routes, so it no longer has the Stub routers continue to receive inter-area routes. View the output of the show ospfv3 command on ABR R2 to see what type each area is and the number of interfaces in each area.

Prior to issuing this command notice the show ip ospf command displays no output. The show ip ospfv3 command might seem like a logical alternative, however it is not a legitimate option. Remember that a totally stubby area is a modified version of a stubby area. To configure a totally stubby area, you only need to change a command at the ABR, R2 in this scenario. The no-summary option tells the router that this area will not receive summary inter-area routes.

To see how this works, issue the show ip route ospfv3 and show ipv6 route ospf commands on R1. Notice the inter-area routes, in addition to the default route generated by R2. Go back to R1 and issue the show ip route ospfv3 and show ipv6 route ospf commands. Notice that both routing tables only show a single incoming route from the ABR R2, the default route.

The default route is injected by the ABR R2. Why does R2 generate a stub default route into area 51? Is this the default route advertised by the ASBR? View the output of the show ip protocols and show ipv6 protocols commands on R2. Share Tweet Share Pin it. Verify multi-area behavior. Router config no ip domain-lookup Router config line con 0 Router config-line logging synchronous Router config-line exec-timeout 0 0 Step 1: Configure the addressing and serial links.

Using the topology, configure the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses on the interfaces of each router. Verify connectivity by pinging across each of the local networks connected to each router. R3 config ipv6 unicast-routing R3 config router ospfv3 1 R3 config-router address-family?

R3 config-router address-family ipv4 unicast R3 config-router-af? R3 config-router-af exit-address-family R3 config-router address-family ipv6 unicast R3 config-router-af router-id 3. R2 config router ospfv3 1 R2 config-router address-family ipv4 unicast R2 config-router-af router-id 2. R1 config ipv6 unicast-routing R1 config router ospfv3 1 R1 config-router address-family ipv4 unicast R1 config-router-af router-id 1.

R2 show ospfv3 neighbor OSPFv3 1 address-family ipv4 router-id 2. R3 config ip route 0. R3 config ip route

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This document discusses the need for service function discovery mechanisms and propose some solutions for sfc-aware nodes to discover available service functions in fog environments. This document introduces the role of SFC pseudo- controller and specifies solutions to select and initialize such new logical function.

This document describes a general framework for distributed SFC operation. Fog RAN support is considered critical for the 5G mobile network architectures currently being developed in various research, standardization and industry forums. Since fog RAN builds on top of virtualization and can involve several virtual functions running on different virtualized resources, Service function chaining SFC support for the fog RAN will be critical.

This document describes the overall fog RAN approach and also gives some use cases. Finally it proposes some requirements to be considered in the development of the SFC architecture and related protocols. This informational document aims to gather in a single place all the most important scenarios in which identity protocols in current use leverage web browser features to achieve their goals and deliver their intended user experience. The purpose of compiling this scenario collection is to make it easier for the identity community to engage with the browser vendors, and in particular to preserve or enhance user experience and expressive power of the identity protocols in mainstream use as browsers introduce new privacy preserving restrictions and new identity tailored features.

By providing a single artifact, listing scenarios in a consistent format, we hope to anchor the conversation on concrete outcomes and impact of changes on end users, developers, providers and in general everyone contributing to identity in the industry. Multiple network slices can be realized on top of a single shared network. A router that requires forwarding of a packet that belongs to a network slice may have to decide on the forwarding action to take based on selected next-hop s , and the forwarding treatment e.

Segment Routing is a technology that enables the steering of packets in a network by encoding pre- established segments within the network into the packet header. This document introduces mechanisms to enable forwarding of packets over a specific network slice along a Segment Routing SR path. Network slicing provides the ability to partition a physical network into multiple logical networks of varying sizes, structures, and functions so that each slice can be dedicated to specific services or customers.

Network slices need to operate in parallel while providing slice elasticity in terms of network resource allocation. The Differentiated Service Diffserv model allows for carrying multiple services on top of a single physical network by relying on compliant nodes to apply specific forwarding treatment scheduling and drop policy on to packets that carry the respective Diffserv code point.

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection operates in different modes. When BFD runs in asynchronous mode requires hello packet needs to be transmitted and received on regular intervals. In software based BFD application, hello packets processing path may be heavy weight which may involve many processing levels to reach BFD application. On a scaled system, processing delay may not be constant at all the time and this processing delay does appear at any point between software path entry point and BFD application.

This delay needs to be identified and suppressed otherwise system may end up on false link failure detection. This internet draft deals on this particular case. Since introducing new Diagnostic bit, it requires to update RFC This document defines an extension to the JSON Pointer syntax, allowing relative locations from within the document. This document describes a source address validation solution for WLAN enabling This document describes three different deployment scenarios, with solutions for migration of binding entries when hosts move from one access point to another.

These include: unauthenticated network intermediaries can trivially disconnect SSH sessions; SSH connections are lost when mobile clients change IP addresses; performance limitations in OS-based TCP stacks; many round-trips to establish a connection; duplicate flow control on the level of the connection as well as channels. The pretty Easy privacy pEp model and protocols describe a set of conventions for the automation of operations traditionally seen as barriers to the use and deployment of secure, privacy-preserving end- to-end interpersonal messaging.

These include, but are not limited to, key management, key discovery, and private key handling including peer-to-peer synchronization of private keys and other user data across devices. For the goal of usable privacy, pEp introduces means to verify communication between peers and proposes a trust-rating system to denote secure types of communications and signal the privacy level available on a per-user and per-message level. Significantly, the pEp protocols build on already available security formats and message transports e.

This document outlines the general design choices and principles of pEp. This document defines how to subscribe to an Event Stream of attestation related Evidence on TPM-based network devices. Consecutively, this document is in support of the Trusted Execution Environment Provisioning TEEP architecture, which defines the assessment of remote peers via RATS and uses SUIT for evidence generation as well as a remediation measure to improve trustworthiness of given remote peers.

TUDA does not require a challenge- response handshake and thereby does not rely on the conveyance of a nonce to prove freshness of remote attestation Evidence. This document describes issues caused by residual configurations in network devices and how multi-level configuration could potentially offer a solution. This document proposes a series of abstract packet schedulers for multipath transport protocols equipped with a congestion controller.

This document defines two new Routing header types. This document provides guidance regarding the processing, insertion and deletion of IPv6 extension headers. It updates RFC This document explains how IPv6 options can be used in IPv6 tunnels. Therefore, Flex-Algorithm cannot be deployed in the absence of SR. The END. Like any endpoint behavior, END. DTM contains a function and arguments. The arguments determine MPLS-label stack contents and the next hop.

This document describes an architecture for a Network Function Interconnect NFIX that allows for interworking of physical and virtual network functions in a unified and scalable manner across wide-area network and data center domains while maintaining the ability to deliver against SLAs.

In case operators decide to delay BGPsec path validation, none of the available states do properly represent this decision. This document introduces "Unverified" as a well-defined validation state which allows to properly identify a non-evaluated BGPsec routes as not verified. This document introduces "Unverified" as well-defined validation state which allows to properly identify route prefixes as not evaluated according to RPKI route origin validation.

There is a lot of confusion about media-types, content-types, and related terminology. This memo is an attempt at clearing it up, so we can use consistent terminology in CoRE and related specifications. It also defines some ABNF that can be used in these specifications.

For debugging, it is often helpful to have information about the implementation of a peer. These options enable faster transmission rates for large amounts of data with less packet interchanges as well as supporting faster recovery should any of the blocks get lost in transmission. This document proposes a new approach for deploying Ethernet LAN ELAN services with an objective of achieving high scalability, faster network convergence, and reduced operational complexity.

Furthermore, it naturally brings the benefits of All-Active multihoming as well as MAC learning in data-plane. This approach significantly improves scalability and convergence of control plane, and simplifies network operation. Furthermore, it naturally yields All-Active multi-homing support for E-Line services without relying on any overlay techniques. It significantly improves scalability and convergence of the L3VPN control plane. K, Daniel Migault. This document describes one common use case, namely that of clients that connect to a network but where they cannot securely authenticate the identity of that network.

In such cases the client would like to learn which encrypted DNS resolvers are designated by that network or by the Do53 resolver offered by that network. It lists requirements that any proposed discovery mechanisms should seek to address. This document specifies a protocol for advertising and discovering devices and services while preserving privacy and confidentiality. This document specifies a way for recursive resolvers operators to signal the IP ranges and locations used by their server pools.

In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance IOAM records operational and telemetry information in the packet while the packet traverses a path between two points in the network. This document proposes several methods to ensure the integrity of IOAM data fields. This document proposes a new Geneve tunnel option and outlines how IOAM data fields are carried in the option data field.

This document provides a framework for IOAM deployment and provides best current practices. This curve features: isomorphism to Miller's curve from ; low Kolmogorov complexity little room for embedded weaknesses of Gordon, Young--Yung, or Teske ; similarity to a Bitcoin curve; Montgomery form; complex multiplication by i Gallant--Lambert--Vanstone ; prime field; easy reduction, inversion, Legendre symbol, and square root; five bit-word field arithmetic; string-as-point encoding; and byte keys.

This document considers the problems that need to addressed in IP in order to address the use cases and new network services described in draft-bryant-arch-fwd-layer-uc This document considers the new and emerging use cases for IP. These use cases are difficult to address with IP in its current format and demonstrate the need to evolve the protocol.

Fast re-route FRR is a technique that allows productive forwarding to continue in a network after a failure has occurred, but before the network has has time to re-converge. This is achieved by forwarding a packet on an alternate path that will not result in the packet looping. This document describes the advantages of using PPR to provide a loop-free alternate FRR path, and provides a framework for its use in this application.

Mohamed Boucadair, Tirumaleswar Reddy. Particularly, it allows to learn an authentication domain name together with a list of IP addresses and a port number to reach such encrypted DNS servers. K, Dan Wing, Valery Smyslov. This document introduces a new approach for the Alternate Marking method.

It is called Big Data Multipoint Alternate Marking method and, starting from the methodology described in RFC and RFC , it explains how to implement performance measurement analytics on the Network Management System by analysing the raw data of the network nodes.

Hybrid key exchange refers to executing two independent key exchanges and feeding the two resulting shared secrets into a Pseudo Random Function PRF , with the goal of deriving a secret which is as secure as the stronger of the two key exchanges. This document describes new hybrid key exchange schemes for the Transport Layer Security 1. There are use cases, specifically in Internet of Things IoT and constrained environments that do not require confidentiality, though message integrity for all communications and mutual authentication during tunnel establishment are both still mandated.

Examples of such use cases are given, although a threat model is necessary to determine whether or not a given situation falls into this catergory of use cases. The approach described in this document is not endorsed by the IETF and does not have IETF consensus, but is presented here to enable interoperable implementation of a reduced security mechanism that provides authentication and message integrity without supporting confidentiality.

The productive output of an IETF working group is documents, as mandated by the working group's charter. When a working group is ready to develop a particular document, the most common mechanism is for it to "adopt" an existing document as a starting point.

The document that a working group adopts and then develops further is based on initial input at varying levels of maturity. An initial working group draft might be a document already in wide use, or it might be a blank sheet, wholly created by the working group, or it might represent any level of maturity in between.

This document discusses how a working group typically handles the formal documents that it targets for publication. The finishing process for a document that is approved for publication as an RFC currently involves a somewhat detailed and lengthy process. The system that executes that process involves a number of different actors, each bringing competency with different aspects of the overall process.

Ensuring that this process functions smoothly is critical to the mission of the organizations that publish documents in the RFC series. This document proposes a framework for that system that aims to provide clear delineations of accountability and responsibility for each of the actors in this system.

This structure helps further scale of the PPR and reduce domain level global entries needed in some data planes. Note to Readers This draft should be discussed on the rfc-interest mailing list. Online access to all versions and files is available on GitHub.

This document specifies how to carry colored path advertisement via an enhancement to the existing protocol BGP Label Unicast. It would allow backward compatibility with RFC The operation is similar to Segment Routing. This proposed protocol will convey the necessary reachability information to the ingress PE node to construct an end to end path.

There is a major change of protocol format starting from this updated draft. If the ingress LER cannot impose the full label stack, it can use the assistance of one or more delegation hops along the path of the LSP to impose parts of the label stack. This document defines the procedures for a PLR to provide local protection against transit node failures using facility backup for these tunnels.

The procedures defined in this document include protection against delegation hop failures. This document describes a solution to the Internet address depletion issue through the use of an existing Option mechanism that is part of the original IPv4 protocol. It is in full conformance with the IPv4 protocol, and supports not only both direct and private network connectivity, but also their interoperability. EzIP deployments may coexist with existing Internet traffic and IoTs Internet of Things operations without perturbing their setups, while offering end-users the freedom to indepdently choose which service.

EzIP may be implemented as a software or firmware enhancement to Internet edge routers or private network routing gateways, wherever needed, or simply installed as an inline adjunct hardware module between the two, enabling a seamless introduction. The M case detailed here establishes a complete spherical layer of routers for interfacing between the Internet fabic core plus edge routers and the end user premises. Incorporating caching proxy technology in the gateway, a fairly large geographical region may enjoy address expansion based on as little as one ordinary IPv4 public address utilizing IP packets with degenerated EzIP header.

If IPv4 public pool allocations were reorganized, the assignable pool could be multiplied M fold or even more. Enabling hierarchical address architecture which facilitates both hierarchical and mesh routing, EzIP can provide nearly the same order of magnitude of address pool resources as IPv6 while streamlining the administrative aspects of it. The basic EzIP will immediately resolve local IPv4 address shortage, while being transparent to the rest of the Internet.

Under the Dual-Stack environment, these proposed interim facilities will relieve the IPv4 address shortage issue, while affording IPv6 more time to reach maturity for providing the availability levels required for delivering a long-term general service. It does not have any per-flow state in the core of the domain. For a multicast packet to an egress node of the domain, when the egress node fails, its upstream hop as a PLR sends the packet to the egress' backup node once the PLR detects the failure.

It does not have any per-flow state in the core. For a multicast packet to traverse a node in the domain, when the node fails, its upstream hop as a PLR reroutes the packet around the failed node once it detects the failure. This could empower networks to quickly and accurately figure out they're being victimized. Both approaches are beneficial for route hijack detection.

This document proposed the minimum value setting mechanism of HTTP2. This draft defines extensions to BGP-LS protocol in order to advertise the information of the transport slice. This document describes protocol extensions to BGP for improving the reliability or availability of a network controlled by a controller cluster. This document describes protocol extensions to OSPF and IS-IS for improving the reliability or availability of a network controlled by a controller cluster.

This document specifies extensions to PCEP protocol when a PCE-based controller is also responsible for configuring the forwarding actions on the routers, in addition to computing the paths for packet flows in a BIER-TE network and telling the edge routers what instructions to attach to packets as they enter the network. So that IFIT behavior can be enabled automatically when the path is instantiated. A link or node failure can significantly impact network services in large-scale networks.

Therefore it is important to ensure the survivability of large scale networks which consist of various connections provided over multiple interconnected networks with varying technologies. This document examines the applicability of the PCE architecture, protocols, and procedures for computing protection paths and restoration services, for single and multi-domain networks.

This document presents three scenarios from the Internet Service Providers' perspective as an supplement use case of the RATS work group. And make some discussions of access authentication, application authentication and trusted link. The requirements of trusted link is put forward to establish a protecttive network connection, thus ensure the native network security.

The current local repair mechanism, e. This mechanism could not work properly when the failure happens in the destination point or the link connected to the destination. When the endpoint fails, local repair couldn't work on the direct neighbor of the failed endpoint either.

This document defines midpoint protection, which enables the direct neighbor of the failed endpoint to do the function of the endpoint, replace the IPv6 destination address to the other endpoint, and choose the next hop based on the new destination address. The Handle System is a global name service that allows secured handle resolution and administration over the public Internet according to [1][5][3]. Handle System protocol [3] is designed to be transmitted as a byte stream via a TCP connection.

In this document, SM2 and SM3 algorithms [4][5]are introduced into the handle system to enhance the security and compactivity. Trusted resolution and message credential are extended to support SM2 and SM3 algorithms. This enables that U-BFD works not only for one hop scenario but for multiple hops scenario as well. In addition, this document also defines a way to explicitly specify the loop back path of the Echo packets.

This is useful in the case where the forward and reverse path of the Echo packets are required to follow the same path. Specified in XML, the mapping defines EPP command syntax and semantics as applied to enterprise and identifier management. The Handle System [1][2]is a name service system for handle resolution and management over the public Internet. This document describes a Trusted Resolution System and the protocol extension based on Handle System protocol. Trusted resolution aims to achieve credibility verification through data signing.

The Trusted Resolution System determines whether to perform trusted resolution and verification on the response according to the trusted flag requested by the client. This document defines the encapsulation for MPLS performance measurement with alternate marking method, which performs flow-based packet loss, delay, and jitter measurements on live traffic.

This document describes the requirements and challenges to employ artificial intelligence AI into the constraint Internet of Things IoT service environment for embedding intelligence and increasing efficiency. The IoT service environment includes heterogeneous and multiple IoT devices and systems that work together in a cooperative and intelligent way to manage homes, buildings, and complex autonomous systems.

Therefore, it is becoming very essential to integrate IoT and AI technologies to increase the synergy between them. However, there are several limitations to achieve AI enabled IoT as the availability of IoT devices is not always high, and IoT networks cannot guarantee a certain level of performance in real-time applications due to resource constraints. With AI enabled IoT, the IoT service environment can be intelligently managed in order to compensate for the unexpected performance degradation often caused by abnormal situations.

In this document, we consider the content caching design without requiring historical content access information or content popularity profiles in a hierarchical cellular network architecture. Our design aims to dynamically select caching locations for different contents where caching locations can be content servers, cloud units CUs , and base stations BSs. Our design objective is to support as high content request rates as possible while maintaining the finite service time. This document describes few 5G mobility scenarios and how mobile network functions map its SST criteria to identifiers in IP packets that transport segments use to grant transport layer services.

This document explores the nuances around the terminology and usage of various IS-IS address families, topologies with different considerations, for choosing the right combination for a specific deployment scenario. PPR uses a simple encapsulation to add the path identity to the packet. PPR can also be used to mitigate the MTU and data plane processing issues that may result from Segment Routing SR packet overhead; and also supports further extensions along the paths.

This document proposes extension of probabilistic routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity PRoPHET for information centric network. G-SRv6 is fully compatible with SRv6 with no modification of SRH, no new address consumption, no new route creation, and even no modification of control plane.

Therefore, it is necessary to consider other types of segments or sub-paths in the end-to-end SRv6 network programming. This document also defines the mechanisms of Generalized SRv6 Networking Programming and the requirements of related protocol extensions of control plane and data plane. This document proposes a YANG module that provides per-node capabilities for optimum operational data collection. This module defines augmented nodes to publish the metadata information specific to YANG node-identifier as per ietf-system- capabilities datatree.

Complementary RPCs, based on the same node capabilities, simplify the data collection operations. This architecture aims at assuring that service instances are correctly running. As services rely on multiple sub-services by the underlying network devices, getting the assurance of a healthy service is only possible with a holistic view of network devices.

This architecture not only helps to correlate the service degradation with the network root cause but also the impacted services when a network component fails or degrades. This document specifies a framework and mapping from slices in 5G mobile systems to transport slices in IP and Layer 2 transport networks.

Slices in 5G systems are characterized by latency bounds, reservation guarantees, jitter, data rates, availability, mobility speed, usage density, criticality and priority. These characteristics should be mapped to the transport network slice characteristics that include bandwidth, latency and criteria such as isolation, directionality and disjoint routes. Mobile slice criteria need to be mapped to the appropriate transport slice and capabilities offered in backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul connectivity segments between radio side network functions and user plane function gateway.

This document describes how mobile network functions map its slice criteria to identifiers in IP packets that transport network segments use to grant transport layer services during UE mobility scenarios. Applicability of this framework and underlying transport networks, which can enable different slice properties is also discussed. This document describes a methodology to monitor network performance exploiting user devices. This can be achieved using the Explicit Flow Measurement Techniques, protocol independent methods that employ few marking bits, inside the header of each packet, for loss and delay measurement.

User devices and servers, marking the traffic, signal these metrics to intermediate network observers allowing them to measure connection performance, and to locate the network segment where impairments happen. In addition or in alternative to network observers, a probe can be installed on the user device with remarkable benefits in terms of hardware deployment and measurement scalability.

Service providers are starting to deploy and interconnect computing capabilities across the network for hosting network functions and applications. In distributed computing environments, both computing and topological information are necessary in order to determine the more convenient infrastructure where to deploy such a service or application. This document raises an initial approach towards the use of ALTO to provide such information and assist in the selection of proper execution environments.

New 5G services are starting to be deployed in operational networks, leveraging in a number of novel technologies and architectural concepts. The purpose of this document is to overview the implications of 5G services in transport networks and to provide guidance on bechmarking of the infratructures supporting those services.

Slicing at the transport network is expected to be offered as part of end-to-end network slices, fostered by the introduction of new services such as 5G. This document explores the usage of intent technologies for requesting IETF network slices. The transport network is an essential component in the end-to-end delivery of services and, consequently, with the advent of network slicing it is necessary to understand what could be the way in which the transport network is consumed as a slice.

This document analyses the needs of potential IETF network slice customers i. This document defines a base profile for TLS protocol versions 1. It is also appropriate for all other US Government systems that process high-value information. The profile is made publicly available here for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments.

It is made publicly available for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments. This specification defines models and schema definitions facilitating the storage of [X. Internet mail defines the From: field to indicate the author of the message's content and the Sender: field to indicate who initially handled the message, on the author's behalf.

The Sender: field is optional, if it has the same information as the From: field. That is, when the Sender: field is absent, the From: field has conflated semantics, as both a handling identifier and a content creator identifier. This was not a problem, until development of stringent protections on use of the From: field. It has prompted Mediators, such as mailing lists, to modify the From: field, to circumvent mail rejection caused by those protections.

This affects end-to-end behavior of email, between the author and the final recipients, because mail from the same author is not treated the same, depending on what path it followed. In effect, the From: field has become dominated by its role as a handling identifier. The current specification augments the altered use of the From: field, by specifying the Author: field, which identifies the original author of the message and is not subject to modification by Mediators. The address to which email is delivered might be different than any of the addresses shown in any of the content header fields that were created by the author.

Before final delivery, handling can entail a sequence of addresses that lead to the recipient. It can be helpful for a message to have a common way to record each delivery in such a sequence, and to include each address used for that recipient. This specification defines a header field for this information. The popularity of social media has led to user comfort with easily signaling basic reactions to an author's posting, such as with a 'thumbs up' or 'smiley' graphic.

This specification permits a similar facility for Internet Mail. It has the traffic engineering information on the network topology and can compute optimal paths for a given traffic flow across the network. This document describes some reference architectures for BGP as a central controller. A BGP-based central controller can simplify the operations on the network and use network resources efficiently for providing services with high quality.

This document discusses the architecture and application scenarios of fused service function chain. Fused service function chain means that two or more service function chains are fused to become a single service function chain from the view of data plane and control plane.

Anyhow, some mechanism or methods need to be used when two or more service function chains are fused to be a single service function chain. This memo defines a metric for one path congestion across Internet paths. The traditional mode evaluates network congestion based on the bandwidth utilization of the link. However, there is a lack of E2E path congestion that is truly service oriented.

So A Path Congestion Metric is required. This test method can test multi-paths concurrently from one edge node to another edge node. As part of that discussion, it became obvious that people had a variety of ideas about how multiple paths would be used, because they weren't looking at the same use cases, and so had different assumptions about how applications might use QUIC over multiple paths. This document is intended to capture questions that have come up in discussions, with some suggested answers, to inform further discussion in the working group.

As part of that discussion, it became obvious that people had a variety of ideas about how multiple paths would be used, because they weren't looking at the same use cases. This document is intended to capture that variety of ideas, to inform further discussion in the working group. Service functions are deployed as, physical or virtualized elements along with network nodes or on servers in data centers. Segment Routing SR brings in the concept of segments which can be topological or service instructions.

Service segments are SR segments that are associated with service functions. SR Policies are used for the setup of paths for steering of traffic through service functions using their service segments. This document specifies the extensions to BGP-LS for the advertisement of service functions along their associated service segments. The BGP-LS advertisement of service function information along with the network nodes that they are attached to, or associated with, enables controllers compute and setup service paths in the network.

This draft describes considerations for benchmarking network performance in containerized infrastructures. In the containerized infrastructure, Virtualized Network Functions VNFs are deployed on operating-system-level virtualization platform by abstracting the user namespace as opposed to virtualization using a hypervisor.

Leveraging this, the system configurations and networking scenarios for benchmarking will be partially changed by the way in which the resource allocation and network technologies specified for containerized VNFs. In this draft, we compare the state of the art in a container networking architecture with networking on VM-based virtualized systems, and provide several test scenarios for benchmarking network performance in containerized infrastructures.

This document specifies extensions to the QUIC protocol to enable the simultaneous usage of multiple paths for a single connection. This document proposes a mechanism to adjust IS-IS flooding speed between two adjacent routers by adjusting the sender flooding speed to the capability of the receiver. This helps improving the flooding throughput, reducing LSPs losses and retransmissions due to receiver overload, and avoiding manual tuning of flooding parameters by the network operator.

This document defines a solution to encode a slice identifier in MPLS in order to distinguish packets that belong to different slices, to allow enforcing per network slice policies. The slice identification is independent of the topology. In order to minimize the size of the MPLS stack and to ease incremental deployment the slice identifier is encoded as part of the Entropy Label. This document also extends the use of the TTL field of the Entropy Label in order to provide a flexible set of flags called the Entropy Label Control field.

This reduces the overhead for both the traffic volume and the network processor. This draft describes a protocol by which client-side applications, running inside a web browser, can communicate with a data storage server that is hosted on a different domain name. This way, the provider of a web application need not also play the role of data storage provider.

The protocol supports storing, retrieving, and removing individual documents, as well as listing the contents of an individual folder, and access control is based on bearer tokens. This document gives general rules for how to pronounce Mandarin Chinese names in conversation, and how to determine which name is someone's surname. It also covers some other related topics about Chinese names.

The intent is to allow IETF participants who are not familiar with Chinese to communicate better with Chinese participants. This document describes Tetrys, an On-The-Fly Network Coding NC protocol that can be used to transport delay and loss-sensitive data over a lossy network. Tetrys can recover from erasures within an RTT-independent delay, thanks to the transmission of coded packets.

It can be used for both unicast, multicast and anycast communications. Multipath communication enables the combination of low data rate, low latency terrestrial links and high data rate, high latency links e. However, the combination of such heterogeneous links is challenging from a technical point of view. This document describes a possible solution, i. The applicability of this approach to encrypted transport protocols e.

BARE messages are concise and have a well-defined schema, and implementations may be simple and broadly compatible. A schema language is also provided to express message schemas out-of-band. It can compute optimal paths for traffic across a network and can also update the paths to reflect changes in the network or traffic demands.

PCEP has been proposed as a control protocol for use in these environments to allow the PCE to be fully enabled as a central controller. This document specifies the procedures and PCEP protocol extensions when a PCE-based controller is also responsible for configuring the forwarding actions on the routers for Segment Routing SR in IPv6 SRv6 , in addition to computing the SRv6 paths for packet flows and telling the edge routers what instructions to attach to packets as they enter the network.

This document introduces this relaxation and updates RFC Traditionally, this TED has been obtained from a link state LS routing protocol supporting the traffic engineering extensions. Lzip can achieve higher compression ratios than gzip. This document describes the lzip format and registers a media type and content encoding to be used when transporting lzip-compressed content via Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions MIME.

End-to-end cryptographic protections for e-mail messages can provide useful security. However, the standards for providing cryptographic protection are extremely flexible. That flexibility can trap users and cause surprising failures. This document offers guidance for mail user agent implementers that need to compose or interpret e-mail messages with end-to-end cryptographic protection.

It provides a useful set of vocabulary as well as suggestions to avoid common failures. This document describes the Network File System NFS version 4 minor version 1, including features retained from the base protocol NFS version 4 minor version 0, which is specified in RFC and protocol extensions made subsequently.

The later minor version has no dependencies on NFS version 4 minor version 0, and is considered a separate protocol. This document obsoletes RFC In addition to many corrections and clarifications, it relies on NFSv4-wide documents to substantially revise the treatment of protocol extension, internationalization, and security, superseding the descriptions of those aspects of the protocol appearing in RFCs and It substantially revises the treatment of features relating to multi-server namespace, superseding the description of those features appearing in RFC This is intended to provide a helpful point of comparision for drafts leading to an eventual rfcbis to enable use of rfcdiff when reviewing such drafts.

This document discusses the inadequate approach to security within the family of NFSv4 protocol specifications and proposes steps to correct the situation. Because the security architecture is similar for all NFSv4 minor versions, we recommend a single new standards- track document to encapsulate NFSv4 security fundamentals, and propose the introduction of several additional security-related documents.

A Virtual Transport Network VTN is a virtual network which has a customized network topology and a set of dedicated or shared network resources allocated from the network infrastructure. In packet forwarding, some fields in data packet needs to be used to identify the VTN the packet belongs to, so that the VTN-specific processing can be performed.

The procedure for processing of the VTN option is also specified. BGP has been used to distribute different types of routing and policy information. In some cases, the information distributed may be only intended for one or a particular group of BGP nodes in the network. Currently BGP does not have a generic mechanism of designating the target nodes of the routing information. Segment Routing SR Policy is a set of candidate paths, each consisting of one or more segment lists and the associated information.

The header of a packet steered in an SR Policy is augmented with an ordered list of segments associated with that SR Policy. In scenarios where multiple Virtual Transport Networks VTNs exist in the network, the VTN in which the SR policy is instantiated may also need to be specified, so that the header of packet can also be augmented with the information associated with the VTN.

Segment Routing SR leverages the source routing paradigm. A node steers a packet through an ordered list of instructions, called "segments". A segment can represent topological or service based instructions. A segment can further be associated with a set of network resources used for executing the instruction. Such a segment is called resource-aware segment. This document defines a new SRv6 network function which can be used for SRv6 inter-layer network programming.

It is a variant of the End. X function. Instead of pointing to an L3 adjacency, this function points to an underlay interface. Future networks that support advanced services, such as those enabled by 5G mobile networks, envision a set of overlay networks each with different performance and scaling properties.

These overlays are known as network slices and are realized over a common underlay network. This document sets out such a mechanism for use in Segment Routing networks. This draft defines an IPv4 option containing a flowlabel that is compatible to IPv6. It is required for simplified usage of IntServ and interoperability with IPv6. This document describes the applicability of the Reliable Server Pooling architecture to manage real-time distributed computing pools and access the resources of such pools.

This document contains the definition of a delay measurement infrastructure and a delay-sensitive Least-Used policy for Reliable Server Pooling. This document collects some idea for a next generation of the Reliable Server Pooling framework. This facilitates porting existing applications to use a subset of NEAT's functionality. It is a result of lessons learned from more than one decade of SCTP deployment. This document explores the scope, use-cases and requirements for a BGP based routing solution to establish end-to-end intent-aware paths across a multi-domain service provider network environment.

This document introduces a new usecase of Application-aware IPv6 Networking to enable data-driven accounting. This document introduces a method to decrease the micro-bursts in Layer3 network for low-latency traffic. There will be a relatively small number of published version numbers for the foreseeable future.

This document provides a method for clients and servers to negotiate the use of other version numbers in subsequent connections and encrypts Initial Packets using secret keys instead of standard ones. If a sizeable subset of QUIC connections use this mechanism, this should prevent middlebox ossification around the current set of published version numbers and the contents of QUIC Initial packets, as well as improving the protocol's privacy properties.

The IETF firmly believes in the value of in-person meetings to reach consensus on documents. However, various emergencies can make a planned in-person meeting impossible. This document provides criteria for making this judgment.

This is the specification for an experimental show of hands tool for the Meetecho system to be used in online meetings to help chairs quickly poll the meeting. This tool is different from the previous experimental virtual hum tool as it addresses a different use case with different functionality. The JSON format includes the overall structure along with the semantic associated for each respective key.

This draft describes an IPv6 solution that enables packets from an application on a UE User Equipment sticking to the same application server location when the UE moves from one 5G cell site to another. The goal is to improve latency and performance for 5G Edge Computing services. The extension enables a feature, called soft anchoring, which makes one Edge Computing Server at one specific location to be more preferred than others for the same application to receive packets from a specific source UE.

Those measurements are for IP network to dynamically optimize the forwarding of 5G edge computing service without any knowledge above IP layer. CR-preload] and the "" status code [RFC]. In order to improve performance and reduce bandwidth usage, the server can omit the fields not requested.

This document describes a stateless NAT64 extension which allows for creation of reliable tunnels between islands of IPv6 deployment. A principal feature of EVPN is the ability to support multihoming from a customer equipment CE to multiple provider edge equipment PE active with all-active links. This draft specifies an improvement to load balancing such links.

A principal feature of EVPN is the ability to support multihoming from a customer equipment CE to multiple provider edge equipment PE with all-active links. These URIs identify algorithms and types of information. This document corrects three errata against and obsoletes RFC The intent is to keep this draft alive while it accumulates updates until it seems reasonable to publish the next version. IETF Hackathons encourage developers to collaborate and develop utilities, ideas, sample code and solutions that show practical implementations of IETF standards.

Watching videos Contents from mobile devices has been causing most of the network traffic and is projected to remain to increase exponentially. Thus, numerous types of content and chunk based caching schemes have been proposed to handle the increasing traffic. Those caching schemes cache the whole videos at the edge nodes, but most of the users view only the beginning of the videos.

Hence, caching the complete video on the edge node is an ineffective solution to reduce the network traffic as well as to improve the cache utilization. Thus, a chunk-level caching scheme to store popular videos partially and a smart prefetching scheme is needed to provide the missing chunks of the video. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 09, It differs from the current TCP standards only in the congestion control algorithm on the sender side.

In particular, it uses a cubic function instead of a linear window increase function of the current TCP standards to improve scalability and stability under fast and long-distance networks. CUBIC and its predecessor algorithm have been adopted as defaults by Linux and have been used for many years.

This document specifies several usecases related to the different ways IoT devices are exploited by malicious adversaries to instantiate Distributed Denial of Services DDoS attacks. The attacks are generted from IoT devices that have no proper protection against generating unsolicited communication messages targeting a certain network and creating large amounts of network traffic.

The attackers take advantage of breaches in the configuration data in unprotected IoT devices exploited for DDoS attacks. The attackers take advantage of the IoT devices that can send network packets that were generated by malicious code that interacts with an OS implementation that runs on the IoT devices.

The major enabler of such attacks is related to IoT devices that have no OS or unprotected EE OS and run code that is downloaded to them from the TA and modified by man-in-the-middle that inserts malicious code in the OS. The new data reduction attributes are proposed to allow the client application to communicate to the NFSv4 server data reduction attributes associated with files and directories using new metadata, communicated to the Block Storage data reduction engines.

Such data reduction metadata is used as hints to the file server about what type of data reduction to apply. The proposed data reduction attributes include achievable ratios for compression and deduplication plus whether each data reduction technique applies to a file or directory. Acknowledgement packets ACKs are used by transport protocols to confirm the delivery of packets, and their reception is used in a variety of other ways to measure path round trip time, to gauge path congestion, etc.

However, the transmission of ACKs also consumes resources at the receiver, forwarding resource in the network and processing resources at the sender. On network paths with significant path asymmetry, transmission of ACKs can limit the available throughput or can reduce the efficient use of network capacity. In these cases, reducing the ratio of ACK packets to data packets can improve link utilisation and reduce link transmission costs.

It can also reduce processing overhead at the sender and receiver. This document proposes a change to the default acknowledgement policy of the QUIC transport protocol to improve performance over paths with appreciable asymmetry. It provides guidance on the design of methods to avoid congestion collapse and to provide congestion control.

Recommendations and requirements on this topic are distributed across many documents in the RFC series. This therefore seeks to gather and consolidate these recommendations in an annexe. Based on these specifications, and Internet engineering experience, the document provides input to the design of new congestion control methods in protocols.

The present document is for discussion and comment by the IETF. It allows a datagram application that uses this PL, to discover the largest size of datagram that can be sent across a network path. This document describes the changes between Unicode 6. The Domain Name System DNS was designed to return matching records efficiently for queries for data that are relatively static. When those records change frequently, DNS is still efficient at returning the updated results when polled, as long as the polling rate is not too high.

But, there exists no mechanism for a client to be asynchronously notified when these changes occur. Some DNS recursive resolvers have longer-than-desired round-trip times to the closest DNS root server; those resolvers may have difficulty getting responses from the root servers, such as during a network attack.

In both cases, resolvers can greatly decrease the round-trip time and prevent observation of requests by serving a copy of the full root zone on the same server, such as on a loopback address or in the resolver software. This document shows how to start and maintain such a copy of the root zone that does not cause problems for other users of the DNS, at the cost of adding some operational fragility for the operator. This updates RFC Information-Centric Networking ICN is a novel paradigm where network communications are accomplished by requesting named content instead of sending packets to destination addresses.

This document provides an overview of the terminology and definitions that have been used in describing concepts in these two implementations of ICN. This document defines a collection of common data types and groupings in YANG data modeling language. These derived common types and groupings are intended to be imported by modules that model Traffic Engineering TE configuration and state capabilities.

However, RFC does not explain how an implementation should set unassigned flags in transmitted messages, nor how an implementation should process unassigned, unknown, or unsupported flags in received messages. This document updates RFC by defining the correct behaviors. There are some circumstances where a Geolocation header field may contain more than one locationValue. Knowing the identity of the node adding the locationValue allows the recipient more freedom in selecting the value to look at first rather than relying solely on the order of the locationValues.

This document defines the "loc-src" parameter so that the entity adding the locationValue to the Geolocation header field can identify itself using its hostname. This document specifies the Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling DOTS signal channel, a protocol for signaling the need for protection against Distributed Denial-of-Service DDoS attacks to a server capable of enabling network traffic mitigation on behalf of the requesting client.

This document provides a one-time interpretation of the eligibility rules that is required for the exceptional situation of the cancellation of the in-person IETF meeting. This document only affects the seating of the NomCom and any rules or processes that relate to NomCom eligibility before IETF ; it does not set a precedent to be applied in the future.

S-CUSP is defined in this document. S-CUSP is presented here to make its specification conveniently available to the Internet community to enable diagnosis and interoperability. In some conferencing scenarios, it is desirable for an intermediary to be able to manipulate some parameters in Real-time Transport Protocol RTP packets, while still providing strong end-to-end security guarantees. This document defines a cryptographic transform for the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol SRTP that uses two separate but related cryptographic operations to provide hop-by-hop and end-to-end security guarantees.

Both the end-to-end and hop-by-hop cryptographic algorithms can utilize an authenticated encryption with associated data AEAD algorithm or take advantage of future SRTP transforms with different properties. Therefore, this document formally moves RFC to Historic status. Other extensions and clarifications to the relay discovery process are also defined.

One of the responsibilities of the Designated Router is to track local multicast listeners and forward data to these listeners if the group is operating in PIM-SM. This document specifies a modification to the PIM-SM protocol that allows more than one of the PIM-SM routers to take on this responsibility so that the forwarding load can be distributed among multiple routers.

Information-Centric Networking ICN is now reaching technological maturity after many years of fundamental research and experimentation. This document provides a number of deployment considerations in the interest of helping the ICN community move forward to the next step of live deployments. First, the major deployment configurations for ICN are described, including the key overlay and underlay approaches.

Then, proposed deployment migration paths are outlined to address major practical issues, such as network and application migration. Next, selected ICN trial experiences are summarized. Finally, protocol areas that require further standardization are identified to facilitate future interoperable ICN deployments. This document provides requirements for a video codec designed mainly for use over the Internet.

In addition, this document describes an evaluation methodology for measuring the compression efficiency to determine whether or not the stated requirements have been fulfilled. This document defines the Static Context Header Compression and fragmentation SCHC framework, which provides both a header compression mechanism and an optional fragmentation mechanism. This document also specifies an optional fragmentation and reassembly mechanism. Fragmentation is needed for IPv6 datagrams that, after SCHC compression or when such compression was not possible, still exceed the Layer 2 maximum payload size.

This document defines generic functionalities and offers flexibility with regard to parameter settings and mechanism choices. Settings and choices specific to a technology or a product are expected to be grouped into profiles, which are specified in other documents. Data models for the context and profiles are out of scope. The standards for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications IDNA require a review of each new version of Unicode to determine whether incompatibilities with prior versions or other issues exist and, where appropriate, to allow the IETF to decide on the trade-offs between compatibility with prior IDNA versions and compatibility with Unicode going forward.

That requirement, and its relationship to tables maintained by IANA, has caused significant confusion in the past. This document makes adjustments to the review procedure based on experience and updates IDNA, specifically RFC , to reflect those changes and to clarify the various relationships involved. It also makes other minor adjustments to align that document with experience. This document defines a bit called the Host-bit H-bit. This bit enables a router to advertise that it is a non-transit router.

This document also describes the changes needed to support the H-bit in the domain. Domain Names were designed for humans, IP addresses were not. But more than 30 years after the introduction of the DNS, a minority of mankind persists in invading the realm of machine-to-machine communication by reading, writing, misspelling, memorizing, permuting, and confusing IP addresses.

This memo describes the Internationalized Deliberately Unreadable Network NOtation "I-DUNNO" , a notation designed to replace current textual representations of IP addresses with something that is not only more concise but will also discourage this small, but obviously important, subset of human activity. The age of quantum networking is upon us, and with it comes "entanglement": a procedure in which a state i.

This will lead to a perceived round-trip time of zero seconds on some Internet paths, a capability which was not predicted and so not included as a possibility in many protocol specifications. Worse than the millennium bug, this unexpected value is bound to cause serious Internet failures unless the specifications are fixed in time. This document defines a method serve-stale for recursive resolvers to use stale DNS data to avoid outages when authoritative nameservers cannot be reached to refresh expired data.

One of the motivations for serve-stale is to make the DNS more resilient to DoS attacks and thereby make them less attractive as an attack vector. This document updates the definitions of TTL from RFCs and so that data can be kept in the cache beyond the TTL expiry; it also updates RFC by interpreting values with the high-order bit set as being positive, rather than 0, and suggests a cap of 7 days. The Hierarchical Path Computation Element H-PCE architecture allows the optimum sequence of interconnected domains to be selected and network policy to be applied if applicable, via the use of a hierarchical relationship between PCEs.

This document describes general considerations and use cases for the deployment of stateful, but not stateless, PCEs using the hierarchical PCE architecture. Multipath TCP provides the ability to simultaneously use multiple paths between peers. This document presents a set of extensions to traditional TCP to support multipath operation. The protocol offers the same type of service to applications as TCP i. This document specifies v1 of Multipath TCP, obsoleting v0 as specified in RFC , through clarifications and modifications primarily driven by deployment experience.

TLS 1. This document specifies a TLS 1. The profile applies to the capabilities, configuration, and operation of all components of US National Security Systems that manage X. It is also appropriate for all other US Government systems that process high-value information. The profile is made publicly available here for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments. In multiconnectivity scenarios, the clients can simultaneously connect to multiple networks based on different access technologies and network architectures like Wi-Fi, LTE, and DSL.

Both the quality of experience of the users and the overall network utilization and efficiency may be improved through the smart selection and combination of access and core network paths that can dynamically adapt to changing network conditions. This document presents a unified problem statement and introduces a solution for managing multiconnectivity.

The solution has been developed by the authors based on their experiences in multiple standards bodies, including the IETF and the 3GPP. The MAMS framework aims to provide best performance while being easy to implement in a wide variety of multiconnectivity deployments.

It specifies the protocol for 1 flexibly selecting the best combination of access and core network paths for the uplink and downlink, and 2 determining the user-plane treatment e. The presence of Constrained Application Protocol CoAP proxies may lead to infinite forwarding loops, which is undesirable.

This document describes the Simple Two-way Active Measurement Protocol STAMP , which enables the measurement of both one-way and round-trip performance metrics, like delay, delay variation, and packet loss. It is made publicly available for use by developers and operators of these and any other system deployments.

This payload format is specifically targeted at streaming workflows using TTML. Given the expansion of the DNS namespace and the proliferation of novel business models, it is desirable to provide a method for Extensible Provisioning Protocol EPP clients to query EPP servers for the fees and credits associated with various billable transactions and provide expected fees and credits for certain commands and objects. This document describes an EPP extension mapping for registry fees.

The size of the IV depends on the applied transform and is usually 8 or 16 octets for the transforms defined at the time this document was written. This IV must be unique but can be predictable. This document describes how to do this. Public key certificates need to be revoked when they are compromised, that is, when the associated private key is exposed to an unauthorized entity.

However, the revocation process is often unreliable. An alternative to revocation is issuing a sequence of certificates, each with a short validity period, and terminating the sequence upon compromise. This report summarizes its significant points of discussion and identifies topics that may warrant further consideration.

Note that this document is a report on the proceedings of the workshop. The views and positions documented in this report are those of the workshop participants and do not necessarily reflect IAB views and positions. Being able to prove possession of a key is also sometimes described as being the holder-of-key. The PIM version 2 messages share a common message header format. The common header definition contains eight reserved bits. This document specifies how these bits may be used by individual message types and creates a registry containing the per-message-type usage.

This document also extends the PIM type space by defining three new message types. For each of the new types, four of the previously reserved bits are used to form an extended type range. This document further updates RFCs and , along with RFCs , , , and , by specifying the use of the currently reserved bits for each PIM message.

Requirements for providing the End-to-End E2E performance assurance are emerging within the service provider networks. While there are various technology solutions, there is no single solution that can fulfill these requirements for a native IP network. In particular, there is a need for a universal E2E solution that can cover both intra- and inter-domain scenarios.

One feasible E2E traffic-engineering solution is the addition of central control in a native IP network. This solution, referred to as Centralized Control Dynamic Routing CCDR , integrates the advantage of using distributed protocols and the power of a centralized control technology, providing traffic engineering for native IP networks in a manner that applies equally to intra- and inter-domain scenarios.

This document specifies an extension to the OAuth 2. OAuth clients are provided a mechanism for authentication to the authorization server using mutual TLS, based on either self-signed certificates or public key infrastructure PKI. OAuth authorization servers are provided a mechanism for binding access tokens to a client's mutual-TLS certificate, and OAuth protected resources are provided a method for ensuring that such an access token presented to it was issued to the client presenting the token.

This document specifies additions and amendments to RFC The purpose of this specification is to modernize the cryptographic primitives used by Generic Security Service GSS key exchanges. The Concise Binary Object Representation CBOR , as defined in RFC , is a data format whose design goals include the possibility of extremely small code size, fairly small message size, and extensibility without the need for version negotiation.

This document makes use of this extensibility to define a number of CBOR tags for typed arrays of numeric data, as well as additional tags for multi-dimensional and homogeneous arrays. This memo specifies IETF community requirements for meeting venues, including hotels and meeting space.

It also directs the IASA to make available additional process documents that describe the current meeting selection process. This document describes a meeting location policy for the IETF and the various stakeholders required to realize this policy. This document provides background on the past IETF Trust arrangements, explains the effect of the rules in the founding documents during the transition to the new arrangement, and provides a rationale for the update.

This memo specifies that the Trustees shall be selected separately. This memo obsoletes RFC The changes relate only to the selection of Trustees. In addition to more substantive changes that are described in other documents, the transition to the IETF Administrative Support structure changes several position titles and organizational relationships that are referenced elsewhere.

Rather than reissue those referencing documents individually, this specification provides updates to them and deprecates some now-obsolete documents to ensure that there is no confusion due to these changes. In the years since then, the needs of the IETF evolved in ways that required changes to its administrative structure. This document is based on RFC Any other changes will be addressed in future documents.

Contributors grant intellectual property rights to the IETF. This document updates RFC to amend these terms. RFC has incorporated those updates, so this document also updates RFC to remove those updates. To ensure consistent interpretation of these values between independent implementations, there is a need to ensure that the values and associated semantic intent are uniquely defined. The IETF uses registry functions to record assigned protocol parameter values and their associated semantic intentions.

This document provides a description of, and the requirements for, these delegated functions. This document describes the framework for an RFC Series and an RFC Editor function that incorporate the principles of organized community involvement and accountability that has become necessary as the Internet technical community has grown, thereby enabling the RFC Series to continue to fulfill its mandate.

The auto-bandwidth feature allows automatic and dynamic adjustment of the TE LSP bandwidth reservation based on the volume of traffic flowing through the LSP. This document describes a mechanism for a restarting router to signal to its neighbors that it is restarting, allowing them to reestablish their adjacencies without cycling through the DOWN state while still correctly initiating database synchronization.

This document additionally describes a mechanism for a router to signal its neighbors that it is preparing to initiate a restart while maintaining forwarding-plane state. This allows the neighbors to maintain their adjacencies until the router has restarted but also allows the neighbors to bring the adjacencies down in the event of other topology changes. This document additionally describes a mechanism for a restarting router to determine when it has achieved Link State Protocol Data Unit LSP database synchronization with its neighbors and a mechanism to optimize LSP database synchronization while minimizing transient routing disruption when a router starts.

It can also be used to check connectivity between two endpoints and as a keep-alive protocol to maintain NAT bindings. Rather, it is a tool to be used in the context of a NAT traversal solution. If a host is located behind a NAT, it can be impossible for that host to communicate directly with other hosts peers in certain situations. In these situations, it is necessary for the host to use the services of an intermediate node that acts as a communication relay. This specification defines a protocol, called "Traversal Using Relays around NAT" TURN , that allows the host to control the operation of the relay and to exchange packets with its peers using the relay.

TURN differs from other relay control protocols in that it allows a client to communicate with multiple peers using a single relay address. However, these curves have not been shown to have significant cryptographical weaknesses, and there is some interest in using several of these curves in TLS 1.

This approach is not endorsed by the IETF. JWTs are being widely used and deployed as a simple security token format in numerous protocols and applications, both in the area of digital identity and in other application areas. Structured syntax suffixes for media types allow other media types to build on them and make it explicit that they are built on an existing media type as their foundation.

In addition, the algorithm identifier and public key syntax are provided. The Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol DLEP is a protocol for modems to advertise the status of wireless links between reachable destinations to attached routers.

The core specification of the protocol RFC assumes that every modem in the radio network has an attached DLEP router and requires that the Media Access Control MAC address of the DLEP interface on the attached router be used to identify the destination in the network, for purposes of reporting the state and quality of the link to that destination. This document describes a DLEP extension that allows modems that do not meet the strict requirement above to use DLEP to describe link availability and quality to one or more destinations reachable beyond a device on the Layer 2 domain.

However, as shown in this document, the existing feasible-path uRPF still has shortcomings. Hence, they can potentially alleviate ISPs' concerns about the possibility of disrupting service for their customers and encourage greater deployment of uRPF techniques.

The goal of Application-Layer Traffic Optimization ALTO is to provide guidance to applications that have to select one or several hosts from a set of candidates capable of providing a desired resource. ALTO is realized by a client-server protocol. In some deployment scenarios, in particular if the information about the network topology is partitioned and distributed over several ALTO servers, it may be necessary to discover an ALTO server outside of the ALTO client's own network domain, in order to get appropriate guidance.

This document details applicable scenarios, itemizes requirements, and specifies a procedure for ALTO cross-domain server discovery. This document describes Network-Assisted Dynamic Adaptation NADA , a novel congestion control scheme for interactive real-time media applications such as video conferencing. In the proposed scheme, the sender regulates its sending rate, based on either implicit or explicit congestion signaling, in a unified approach. It also maintains consistent sender behavior in the absence of such markings by reacting to queuing delays and packet losses instead.

This grouping can then be used to define associations between sets of LSPs or between a set of LSPs and a set of attributes such as configuration parameters or behaviors , and it is equally applicable to the stateful PCE active and passive modes and the stateless PCE. The conventions for the associated signer public keys in CMS are also described. When multiple congestion-controlled Real-time Transport Protocol RTP sessions traverse the same network bottleneck, combining their controls can improve the total on-the-wire behavior in terms of delay, loss, and fairness.

This document describes such a method for flows that have the same sender, in a way that is as flexible and simple as possible while minimizing the number of changes needed to existing RTP applications. This document also specifies how to apply the method for the Network-Assisted Dynamic Adaptation NADA congestion control algorithm and provides suggestions on how to apply it to other congestion control algorithms.

It reserves a set of TLS protocol values that may be advertised to ensure peers correctly handle unknown values. This document describes the TinyMT32 Pseudorandom Number Generator PRNG , which produces bit pseudorandom unsigned integers and aims at having a simple-to-use and deterministic solution. The main advantage of TinyMT32 over MT is the use of a small internal state, compatible with most target platforms that include embedded devices, while keeping reasonably good randomness that represents a significant improvement compared to the Park-Miller Linear Congruential PRNG.

These Sliding Window FEC Codes rely on an encoding window that slides over the source symbols, generating new repair symbols whenever needed. The framework supports applying FEC to arbitrary packet flows over unreliable transport and is primarily intended for real-time, or streaming, media. This document provides methods and settings for using IPv6 to communicate among nodes within range of one another over a single IEEE Support for these methods and settings require minimal changes to existing stacks.

This document also describes limitations associated with using these methods. Optimizations and usage of IPv6 over more complex scenarios are not covered in this specification and are a subject for future work. It includes both retrospective material from individuals involved at key inflection points as well as a review of the current state of affairs. It concludes with thoughts on possibilities for the next fifty years for the Series.

This document updates the perspectives offered in RFCs and Much has been written on this topic over the last 10 to 15 years, but it still remains a problem without a clearly defined or widely implemented solution. Any multihoming solution without NAT requires hosts at the site to have addresses from each ISP and to select the egress ISP by selecting a source address for outgoing packets.

It also requires routers at the site to take into account those source addresses when forwarding packets out towards the ISPs. This document examines currently available mechanisms for providing a solution to this problem for a broad range of enterprise topologies.

It covers the behavior of routers to forward traffic by taking into account source address, and it covers the behavior of hosts to select appropriate default source addresses. It also covers any possible role that routers might play in providing information to hosts to help them select appropriate source addresses. In the process of exploring potential solutions, this document also makes explicit requirements for how the solution would be expected to behave from the perspective of an enterprise site network administrator.

The invention of a large-scale quantum computer would pose a serious challenge for the cryptographic algorithms that are widely deployed today. The Cryptographic Message Syntax CMS supports key transport and key agreement algorithms that could be broken by the invention of such a quantum computer.

By storing communications that are protected with the CMS today, someone could decrypt them in the future when a large-scale quantum computer becomes available. Once quantum-secure key management algorithms are available, the CMS will be extended to support the new algorithms if the existing syntax does not accommodate them.

This document describes a mechanism to protect today's communication from the future invention of a large-scale quantum computer by mixing the output of key transport and key agreement algorithms with a pre-shared key. It provides a mechanism to derive an optimum end-to-end path in a multi-domain environment by using a hierarchical relationship between domains to select the optimum sequence of domains and optimum paths across those domains.

This ambiguity has resulted in interoperability issues. Internet X. Digital signatures are used to sign messages, X. This document updates the "Algorithms and Identifiers for the Internet X. The conventions for the associated subject public keys are also described.

Segment Routing SR leverages the source-routing paradigm. A node steers a packet through an ordered list of instructions called "segments". A segment can represent any instruction, topological or service based. Each SID represents a topological or service-based instruction.

Per-flow state is maintained only on the ingress node of the SR domain. If entities external to IS-IS wish to control traffic flows on the individual physical links that comprise the Layer 2 interface bundle, link attribute information about the bundle members is required.

A node steers a packet through an ordered list of instructions, called segments. For each type of egress failure, it defines the roles of Point of Local Repair PLR , protector, and backup egress router and the procedures of establishing a bypass tunnel from a PLR to a protector.

It describes the behaviors of these routers in handling an egress failure, including local repair on the PLR and context-based forwarding on the protector. The framework can be used to develop egress protection mechanisms to reduce traffic loss before global repair reacts to an egress failure and control-plane protocols converge on the topology changes due to the egress failure.

Segment Routing SR allows a flexible definition of end-to-end paths within IGP topologies by encoding paths as sequences of topological subpaths called "segments". Segment Routing SR enables any head-end node to select any path without relying on a hop-by-hop signaling technique e. A Segment Routing SR node steers a packet through a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the packet with an SR header. SR allows enforcing a flow through any topological path while maintaining per-flow state only at the ingress node to the SR domain.

The Segment Routing architecture can be directly applied to the MPLS data plane with no change in the forwarding plane. A node steers a packet through a controlled set of instructions, called segments, by prepending the packet with an SR header. Segment Routing SR allows for a flexible definition of end-to-end paths within IGP topologies by encoding paths as sequences of topological sub-paths, called "segments".

This specification defines a preference for HTTP requests that expresses a desire to avoid objectionable content, according to the definition of that term by the origin server. This specification does not define a precise semantic for "safe". Rather, the term is interpreted by the server and within the scope of each web site that chooses to act upon this information. Support for this preference by clients and servers is optional. This response code enables calling parties to learn that an intermediary rejected their call attempt.

No one will deliver, and thus answer, the call. As a 6xx code, the caller will be aware that future attempts to contact the same User Agent Server will likely fail. The initial use case driving the need for the response code is when the intermediary is an analytics engine. In this case, the rejection is by a machine or other process. This contrasts with the Unwanted SIP response code in which a human at the target User Agent Server indicates the user did not want the call.

In some jurisdictions, this distinction is important. This document also defines the use of the Call-Info header field in responses to enable rejected callers to contact entities that blocked their calls in error. This provides a remediation mechanism for legal callers that find their calls blocked.

To accommodate byte-range requests for content that has data appended over time, this document defines semantics that allow an HTTP client and a server to perform byte-range GET and HEAD requests that start at an arbitrary byte offset within the representation and end at an indeterminate offset.

This specification defines two such parameters: one allowing specific accounts of a CA to be identified by URIs and one allowing specific methods of domain control validation as defined by the Automatic Certificate Management Environment ACME protocol to be required. CAA Resource Records allow a public CA to implement additional controls to reduce the risk of unintended certificate mis-issue. Adoption of cloud and fog technology allows operators to deploy a single "Service Function" SF to multiple "execution locations".

The decision to steer traffic to a specific location may change frequently based on load, proximity, etc. Under the current Service Function Chaining SFC framework, steering traffic dynamically to the different execution endpoints requires a specific "rechaining", i. This procedure may be complex and take time. In order to simplify rechaining and reduce the time to complete the procedure, we discuss separating the logical Service Function Path SFP from the specific execution endpoints.

This can be done by identifying the SFs using a name rather than a routable IP endpoint or Layer 2 address. This document describes the necessary extensions, additional functions, and protocol details in the Service Function Forwarder SFF to handle name-based relationships. It does not represent IETF consensus and is presented here so that the SFC community may benefit from considering this mechanism and the possibility of its use in the edge data centers.

Once a new tunnel type registration is made by IANA for a new tunneling scheme or even an existing one that is not already listed in the current registry e. It is not the intent of this document to update the existing IANA registry with a comprehensive list of tunnel technologies. Registrants must follow the IETF registration procedure for interface types whenever a new tunnel type is needed. Both unicast and multicast attributes are covered.

The network providing the same type of service to any mobile host and any application running on the host yields inefficiencies, as described in RFC Several alternatives have been proposed to detect this situation and prevent a client from establishing a TLS session with a TLS end point authenticated with an illegitimate public-key certificate.

These mechanisms are either not widely deployed or limited to public web browsing. This document proposes experimental extensions to TLS with opaque pinning tickets as a way to pin the server's identity. During an initial TLS session, the server provides an original encrypted pinning ticket. In subsequent TLS session establishment, upon receipt of the pinning ticket, the server proves its ability to decrypt the pinning ticket and thus the ownership of the pinning protection key. One of the important properties of this proposal is that no manual management actions are required.

This document provides the overall architecture for Deterministic Networking DetNet , which provides a capability to carry specified unicast or multicast data flows for real-time applications with extremely low data loss rates and bounded latency within a network domain. This document defines a YANG module for alarm management. It includes functions for alarm-list management, alarm shelving, and notifications to inform management systems. There are also operations to manage the operator state of an alarm and administrative alarm procedures.

The module carefully maps to relevant alarm standards. In such cases, the I-IP backbone needs to offer both unicast and multicast transit services to the client E-IP networks. This document describes a mechanism for supporting multicast across backbone networks where the I-IP and E-IP protocol families differ.

This document defines a YANG data model and associated mechanisms enabling subscriber-specific subscriptions to a publisher's event streams. Applying these elements allows a subscriber to request and receive a continuous, customized feed of publisher-generated information. This document describes a mechanism that allows subscriber applications to request a continuous and customized stream of updates from a YANG datastore. Providing such visibility into updates enables new capabilities based on the remote mirroring and monitoring of configuration and operational state.

This document describes a data representation for collections of DNS messages. The format is designed for efficient storage and transmission of large packet captures of DNS traffic; it attempts to minimize the size of such packet capture files but retain the full DNS message contents along with the most useful transport metadata.

It is intended to assist with the development of DNS traffic- monitoring applications. A certain maximum amount of data can be safely encrypted when encryption is performed under a single key. This amount is called the "key lifetime". This specification describes a variety of methods for increasing the lifetime of symmetric keys. This document specifies the Hash Of Root Key certificate extension.

This certificate extension is carried in the self-signed certificate for a trust anchor, which is often called a Root Certification Authority CA certificate. This certificate extension unambiguously identifies the next public key that will be used at some point in the future as the next Root CA certificate, eventually replacing the current one.

A packet-switching network may contain links with variable bandwidths e. The bandwidth of such links is sensitive to the external environment e. Availability is typically used to describe these links when doing network planning. The OAuth 2. It enables OAuth clients on such devices like smart TVs, media consoles, digital picture frames, and printers to obtain user authorization to access protected resources by using a user agent on a separate device.

The extension defines the Peer Overload report type. The initial use case for the peer report is the handling of occurrences of overload of a Diameter Agent. This includes a requirement to allow Diameter nodes to send "load" information, even when the node is not overloaded.

The base solution defined in RFC Diameter Overload Information Conveyance DOIC describes a mechanism meeting most of the requirements but does not currently include the ability to send load information. This document defines a mechanism for the conveying of Diameter load information. This extension adds a new overload-control abatement algorithm. OSRTP allows encrypted media to be used in environments where support for encryption is not known in advance and is not required.

OSRTP does not require Session Description Protocol SDP extensions or features and is fully backwards compatible with existing implementations using encrypted and authenticated media and implementations that do not encrypt or authenticate media packets.

OSRTP is a transitional approach useful for migrating existing deployments of real-time communications to a fully encrypted and authenticated state. Clients can use this to efficiently search, access, organise, and send messages, and to get push notifications for fast resynchronisation when new messages are delivered or a change is made in another client. Well-known BGP communities are manipulated differently across various current implementations, resulting in difficulties for operators.

Network operators should deploy consistent community handling across their networks while taking the inconsistent behaviors from the various BGP implementations into consideration. This document recommends specific actions to limit future inconsistency: namely, BGP implementors must not create further inconsistencies from this point forward.

These behavioral changes, though subtle, actually update RFC This document describes a safe rollover process, and it discusses when and why the rollover of BGPsec router certificates is necessary. When this rollover process is followed, the rollover will be performed without routing information being lost.

This document describes two methods of generating the public-private key pairs: router-driven and operator-driven. Many resources provided on the Web are part of sets of resources that are provided in a context that is managed by one particular service provider. This specification defines link relations that represent relationships from Web services or APIs to resources that provide documentation, descriptions, metadata, or status information for these resources.

Documentation is primarily intended for human consumers, whereas descriptions are primarily intended for automated consumers. Metadata provides information about a service's context. This specification also defines a link relation to identify status resources that are used to represent information about service status.

This document is a collection of best practices for the general operation of NTP servers and clients on the Internet. It includes recommendations for the stable, accurate, and secure operation of NTP infrastructure. The PKINIT key derivation function is made negotiable, and the digest algorithms for signing the pre-authentication data and the client's X. These changes provide preemptive protection against vulnerabilities discovered in the future in any specific cryptographic algorithm and allow incremental deployment of newer algorithms.

RTP source packets that were lost in transmission can be reconstructed using the source and repair packets that were received. The non-interleaved and interleaved parity codes that are defined in this specification offer a good protection against random and bursty packet losses, respectively, at a cost of complexity. The RTP payload formats that are defined in this document address scalability issues experienced with the earlier specifications and offer several improvements.

Due to these changes, the new payload formats are not backward compatible with earlier specifications; however, endpoints that do not implement this specification can still work by simply ignoring the FEC repair packets. Abstraction and Control of TE Networks ACTN refers to the set of virtual network VN operations needed to orchestrate, control, and manage large-scale multidomain TE networks so as to facilitate network programmability, automation, efficient resource sharing, and end-to-end virtual service-aware connectivity and network function virtualization services.

The Path Computation Element PCE is a component, application, or network node that is capable of computing a network path or route based on a network graph and applying computational constraints. This memo updates RFC This document describes the core concepts of the Content-Centric Networking CCNx architecture and presents a network protocol based on two messages: Interests and Content Objects. It specifies the set of mandatory and optional fields within those messages and describes their behavior and interpretation.

This architecture and protocol specification is independent of a specific wire encoding. The protocol also uses a control message called an Interest Return, whereby one system can return an Interest message to the previous hop due to an error condition. This indicates to the previous hop that the current system will not respond to the Interest. Two full implementations are in active use and have informed the technical maturity of the protocol specification.

Content-Centric Networking CCNx is a network protocol that uses a hierarchical name to forward requests and to match responses to requests. The document received wide review among ICNRG participants and has two full implementations currently in active use, which have informed the technical maturity of the protocol specification.

OSCORE is designed for constrained nodes and networks supporting a range of proxy operations, including translation between different transport protocols. Therefore, this document updates RFC The Authenticated Received Chain ARC protocol provides an authenticated "chain of custody" for a message, allowing each entity that handles the message to see what entities handled it before and what the message's authentication assessment was at each step in the handling.

ARC allows Internet Mail Handlers to attach assertions of message authentication assessment to individual messages. As messages traverse ARC-enabled Internet Mail Handlers, additional ARC assertions can be attached to messages to form ordered sets of ARC assertions that represent the authentication assessment at each step of the message-handling paths.

ARC-enabled Internet Mail Handlers can process sets of ARC assertions to inform message disposition decisions, identify Internet Mail Handlers that might break existing authentication mechanisms, and convey original authentication assessments across trust boundaries.

In internationalized email, domain names can occur both as U-labels and A-labels. This document describes how to use the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol XMPP to collect and distribute security incident reports and other security-relevant information between network- connected devices, primarily for the purpose of communication among Computer Security Incident Response Teams and associated entities.

This document specifies the algorithms, algorithm parameters, asymmetric key formats, asymmetric key sizes, and signature formats used in BGPsec Border Gateway Protocol Security. This document also includes example BGPsec UPDATE messages as well as the private keys used to generate the messages and the certificates necessary to validate those signatures. The data nodes for management of the interface protection functionality is broken out into a separate and generic YANG data model in order to make it available for other interface types as well.

Additionally, a mechanism is defined to enable the determination of the capabilities supported by a Label Switching Router LSR. This document assigns algorithm identifiers to the HKDF algorithm when used with three common one-way hash functions. There are numerous uses for this PHB, e. This document describes an application of Segment Routing to scale the network to support hundreds of thousands of network nodes, and tens of millions of physical underlay endpoints.

Forwarding tables of midpoint and leaf nodes only require a few tens of thousands of entries. This may be achieved by the inherently scaleable nature of Segment Routing and the design proposed in this document. This document updates RFC by adding a location parameter for this purpose. To ensure interoperability between DNS resolvers and DNS authoritative servers, it is necessary to specify a set of algorithm implementation requirements and usage guidelines to ensure that there is at least one algorithm that all implementations support.

This approach does not deprecate or replace the NSH, but it acknowledges that there may be a need for an interim deployment of SFC functionality in brownfield networks. This specification documents existing code deployed by multiple vendors. It is published as an Informational specification rather than Standards Track due to its noncompliance with multiple best current practices of HTTP.

This document specifies a message header field called "Authentication-Results" for use with electronic mail messages to indicate the results of message authentication efforts. Any receiver-side software, such as mail filters or Mail User Agents MUAs , can use this header field to relay that information in a convenient and meaningful way to users or to make sorting and filtering decisions.

These payloads add support for private internal-only DNS domains. These domains are intended to be resolved using non-public DNS servers that are only reachable through the IPsec connection. DNS resolution for other domains remains unchanged.

These Configuration Payloads only apply to split- tunnel configurations. It also defines the parameters to trigger such push notification requests. The document also defines new feature-capability indicators that can be used to indicate support of this mechanism. The protocol is self-contained and specifically tailored to TCP implementations, which often reside in kernels or other environments in which large external software dependencies can be undesirable. Because the size of TCP options is limited, the protocol requires one additional one-way message latency to perform key exchange before application data can be transmitted.

However, the extra latency can be avoided between two hosts that have recently established a previous tcpcrypt connection. The persistence of unencrypted traffic can be attributed to at least two factors. First, some legacy protocols lack a signaling mechanism such as a STARTTLS command by which to convey support for encryption, thus making incremental deployment impossible.

Second, legacy applications themselves cannot always be upgraded and therefore require a way to implement encryption transparently entirely within the transport layer. This paper documents the needs in various industries to establish multi-hop paths for characterized flows with deterministic properties.

Frogans is a medium for publishing content and services on the Internet, defined as a generic software layer on the Internet. Frogans Player is software that enables end users to browse Frogans sites. This specification defines the Sunset HTTP response header field, which indicates that a URI is likely to become unresponsive at a specified point in the future.

It also defines a sunset link relation type that allows linking to resources providing information about an upcoming resource or service sunset. Software-Defined Networking SDN advocates for the separation of the control plane from the data plane in the network nodes and its logical centralization on one or a set of control entities. Typically, such an entity is seen as a compendium of interacting control functions in a vertical, tightly integrated fashion. The relocation of the control functions from a number of distributed network nodes to a logical central entity conceptually places together a number of control capabilities with different purposes.

As a consequence, the existing solutions do not provide a clear separation between transport control and services that rely upon transport capabilities. This document describes an approach called Cooperating Layered Architecture for Software-Defined Networking CLAS , wherein the control functions associated with transport are differentiated from those related to services in such a way that they can be provided and maintained independently and can follow their own evolution path.