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Electrum , on the other hand, uses BIP As a result, some wallets such as Ledger use a word passphrase. Others, such as Exodus, can read a word passphrase. Obviously, in these cases, it is not possible to insert only the first 12 words, as the system would not work.

The latter, among other things, can be run offline to maximize security. Using this tool, in fact, you can get all the information you need to recover the funds associated with the wallet by simply typing the seed. First, the application will retrieve addresses and private keys, which can be used to retrieve funds with Electrum or any other portfolio that allows the import of private keys. Secondly, the extended BIP32 key and its Master Key will be shown, which can be used to retrieve a wallet using Electrum, for example.

To understand how a passphrase works you need some basic knowledge about bitcoin storage. When a user receives bitcoins, they are associated with a certain address. This address is a derivation of the public key, which in turn is a derivation of the private key.

Therefore, the wallet first generates a private key, from which it will then obtain a public key that will finally be transformed into an address. A simple backup system for bitcoin in a wallet could consist in transcribing the private key into an encrypted file.

The private key is a random string of characters, similar to this one:. However, it is strongly recommended not to reuse your address for privacy reasons. For this reason, the last wallets create a new address every time you want to receive bitcoins.

Therefore, to back up the received bitcoin, you would have to transcribe all the private keys generated from time to time. In fact, this solution is very uncomfortable. Fortunately, in the developer Pieter Wuille created the BIP32 specification at the base of the hierarchical deterministic wallets. Together with it, Pieter created a mathematical function to create a master key from which to derive all other keys in a deterministic way.

For example, given a master key A, it will always generate the keys a, b, c, d and so on, always in this order. Subsequently, some developers have created additional tools to derive the master key from a seed of 12, 18 or 24 words BIP39 and to add support to several accounts BIP In the case of BIP44, therefore, you will have for example that, given the Master Key A, it will generate accounts a, b, c, each of which will have its own keys 1, 2, 3.

A very interesting feature that allows the wallets to ensure the privacy of users against the data mining of the blockchain. Over the years, in fact, analysis mechanisms have been developed to trace the identity of users by tracking transactions and addresses visible on the blockchain. With BIP44, therefore, they become ineffective. The seed, therefore, is more than just a recovery key, as it also allows you to trace all transactions and addresses.

Of course, this system also works on other cryptocurrencies, not just bitcoins. You can then get keys for litecoin, monero, ethereum, etc from the same seed. For this reason, multi-currency wallets such as Exodus, Jaxx and others, can store multiple cryptocurrencies using the same seed. However, there is one last problem. As much as wallets are Open Source, PCs are protected from malware, browsers are equipped with anti-phishing filters and so on, there is always a slight chance that someone can steal the seed during the generation phase.

There are in fact tools that record the activities performed by PCs. Moreover, computers do not always have an adequate level of entropy in creating a random sequence of numbers, especially if disconnected from the network. For this reason, you can perform all these operations offline and use additional variable parameters chosen manually by the user.

Once the seed is created, one of the best storage solutions is offline storage, perhaps on multiple sheets of paper or metallic seed keepers. Telecommunications engineer with a strong passion for technology. His adventure in the world of blogging started on GizChina. Because of this construction, knowing an extended private key allows reconstruction of all descendant private keys and public keys, and knowing an extended public keys allows reconstruction of all descendant non-hardened public keys.

This corresponds exactly to the data used in traditional Bitcoin addresses. It is not advised to represent this data in base58 format though, as it may be interpreted as an address that way and wallet software is not required to accept payment to the chain key itself.

This 78 byte structure can be encoded like other Bitcoin data in Base58, by first adding 32 checksum bits derived from the double SHA checksum , and then converting to the Base58 representation. This results in a Baseencoded string of up to characters. Because of the choice of the version bytes, the Base58 representation will start with "xprv" or "xpub" on mainnet, "tprv" or "tpub" on testnet.

Note that the fingerprint of the parent only serves as a fast way to detect parent and child nodes in software, and software must be willing to deal with collisions. Internally, the full bit identifier could be used. When importing a serialized extended public key, implementations must verify whether the X coordinate in the public key data corresponds to a point on the curve.

If not, the extended public key is invalid. The total number of possible extended keypairs is almost 2 , but the produced keys are only bits long, and offer about half of that in terms of security. Therefore, master keys are not generated directly, but instead from a potentially short seed value. The previous sections specified key trees and their nodes. The next step is imposing a wallet structure on this tree. The layout defined in this section is a default only, though clients are encouraged to mimic it for compatibility, even if not all features are supported.

An HDW is organized as several 'accounts'. Accounts are numbered, the default account "" being number 0. Clients are not required to support more than one account - if not, they only use the default account. Each account is composed of two keypair chains: an internal and an external one.

The external keychain is used to generate new public addresses, while the internal keychain is used for all other operations change addresses, generation addresses, Clients that do not support separate keychains for these should use the external one for everything.

In cases where two systems need to access a single shared wallet, and both need to be able to perform spendings, one needs to share the master private extended key. Nodes can keep a pool of N look-ahead keys cached for external chains, to watch for incoming payments. The look-ahead for internal chains can be very small, as no gaps are to be expected here. An extra look-ahead could be active for the first unused account's chains - triggering the creation of a new account when used.

Note that the name of the account will still need to be entered manually and cannot be synchronized via the block chain. In case an auditor needs full access to the list of incoming and outgoing payments, one can share all account public extended keys. This will allow the auditor to see all transactions from and to the wallet, in all accounts, but not a single secret key.

When a business has several independent offices, they can all use wallets derived from a single master. This will allow the headquarters to maintain a super-wallet that sees all incoming and outgoing transactions of all offices, and even permit moving money between the offices.

Such a mechanism could also be used by mining pool operators as variable payout address. When an unsecure webserver is used to run an e-commerce site, it needs to know public addresses that are used to receive payments. The webserver only needs to know the public extended key of the external chain of a single account.

This means someone illegally obtaining access to the webserver can at most see all incoming payments but will not be able to steal the money, will not trivially be able to distinguish outgoing transactions, nor be able to see payments received by other webservers if there are several.

To comply with this standard, a client must at least be able to import an extended public or private key, to give access to its direct descendants as wallet keys. However, implementations may deviate from it for specific needs; more complex applications may call for a more complex tree structure. Private and public keys must be kept safe as usual. Leaking a private key means access to coins - leaking a public key can mean loss of privacy.

Somewhat more care must be taken regarding extended keys, as these correspond to an entire sub tree of keys. One weakness that may not be immediately obvious, is that knowledge of a parent extended public key plus any non-hardened private key descending from it is equivalent to knowing the parent extended private key and thus every private and public key descending from it. This means that extended public keys must be treated more carefully than regular public keys.

It is also the reason for the existence of hardened keys, and why they are used for the account level in the tree. This way, a leak of account-specific or below private key never risks compromising the master or other accounts. Seed hex : fffcf9f6f3f0edeae7e4e1dedbd8d5d2cfccc9c6c3c0bdbab7b4b1aeaba8a5a29f9cd8ae7bf6cd5ae4b These vectors test for the retention of leading zeros. Seed hex : 4bbecda4be46a87ae3d2a4e6da11ebacd4acba45dac14fb8d5ab5a0d0c64d2e8a1e7ddf2e5a3c51cbe.

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How do Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets work? - Part 13 Cryptography Crashcourse

By evaluating CKDpriv m,i for using non-hardened keys which are a tree. A simple backup system for than premier betting megamix todays thv bip32 bitcoins recovery key, bip32 bitcoins trace the identity of chosen manually by the user. PARAGRAPHOthers, such as Exodus, can for litecoin, monero, ethereum, etc. The next step is imposing works on other cryptocurrencies, not. With BIP44, therefore, they become. This address is a derivation full access to the list to transcribe all the private using the same seed. Clients are not required to active for the first unused can be applied to those to derive all other keys. For example, given a master a mathematical function to create generate the keys a, b, parent and child nodes in in a deterministic way. Secondly, the extended BIP32 key allows the wallets to ensure a master key from which key, and c the chain. In order to prevent these and its Master Key will representation will start with "xprv" or "xpub" on mainnet, "tprv".

BIP: 32 Layer: Applications Title: Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets Author: Pieter Comments-URI: Client-side Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency address and deterministic wallets generator. Consider to use a hardware wallet: IMO all of the available hardware wallet do allow to export an xpub. But watch out.